The object of the essay are the events concerning the mobilization of the working class and the action of the labor unions for the renewal of the national collective contract of the metal workers in 1969 and its aftermath. It is based on a direct experience of the author (acting as a union officer at that time) and analyses the relations among the workers’ struggles, the student movement and the birth of political groups of the radical left. The analysis takes into account also the reactions of particular State bodies, who organized a series of bloody attacks, while the violence of terrorist groups started spreading out. After the renewal of the contract, the workers movement fought for several years in order to improve and strengthen its achievements. Those years have been years of great social progress but the results gained by the workers have met great resistance by the entrepreneurial counterpart and by the political parties.