This review examines the association between the perinatal period and thoughts and behaviours of neonaticide, infanticide, and filicide, highlighting mothers’ risk factors. A literature search was conducted on PubMed, PsycINFO, and ScienceDirect, with 2,957 articles screened and 13 determined as eligible for inclusion. Inclusion criteria were: 1) studies on neonaticide, infanticide and filicide; 2) studies conducted on women; 3) studies with perinatal population; 4) original, peer-reviewed studies; 5) studies written in English or Italian language. Single-case reports and qualitative studies were excluded, as were those studies written in any other language, and any studies for which the full-text version could not be obtained (i.e. conference abstracts). Two reviewers independently reviewed titles and abstracts, reviewed relevant articles' full text, and extracted the data. Several individuals and socio-environmental risk factors were identified for neonaticide, infanticide, and filicide during the perinatal period, highlighting the importance of paying particular attention to the mother’s well-being in this critical phase. Women who committed neonaticide, infanticide, or filicide faced a variety of challenges in their lives. Such life events might prompt mental health professionals to address the possibility of harmful acts in their patients.