This article undertakes a detailed examination of the law with regard to the cul-ture and rights of native peoples that was recently passed by the Mexican Parlia-ment. The widespread opinion is that this new law betrays the commitments made by the Mexican government under the previous San Andrés agreements and the initiative taken with the "Cocopa Law". This is because the new law makes no al-lowance for the native peoples’ claims, but prepares the way for a "modernisation" of agricultural policies that puts an end to all forms of distribution of arable land. As a result, the law’s legitimacy and even its legality have been questioned by civil society. In practice, the law puts a stop to the political dialogue sanctioned by the Zapatistas’ march on Mexico City and constitutes a threat to social peace, primar-ily because it does nothing to tackle the dramatic question of the extreme poverty and social exclusion of the native peoples.