Aim of this paper is to analyse by a review of economic literature several relationships link economic competitively and social cohesion. Paper tries to overcome the ideological opposition between the two concepts, recognizing that an appropriate mix of both represents a classical issue in development theory. For instance, the paper examines two different ways where is possible to look at the competitively and cohesion interactions. The first is to deal economic growth with divergence processes: allowing for neo-classical models and new economic geography approach, analysis seeks to understand if European integration process is increasing or reducing regional disequilibria. The second is to face innovation processes and social capital endowment: using a political economy approach, the review shows how in high developed economies rational oppositions to innovation often take place, especially when innovation arrives through new technologies, new firms, and new jobs. Final remarks in both perspectives point to enhance social awareness for a better governance of innovation and economic growth, especially at local level.