In developed countries, tobacco-smoking is the main cause of premature mortality: in European Union, 25% of neoplasm deaths and 15% of the whole deaths can be connected to this habit. Particularly, women are increasing their use of cigarettes, on the contrary of men, which decrease the consumption. Moreover, people with a low socio-economical level are becoming smokers at a higher frequency. The analysis carried out by the Health Agency of Tuscan shows that tobacco consumption is firmly decreased in Italy, in the late 50 years. However, disaggregate data show that smoking prevalence is increasing in the age class 14- 24, with geographic differences (more in the north and central Italy) and social ones: for males, the prevalence of smoking is related to low schooling level; instead in females, tobacco use is more widespread in higher socioeconomic class and instruction level. These are relevant evidence which must re-direct tobacco control and prevention (primary and secondary) strategies.