In the period following the Second World War, the Società Generale Immobiliare was one of the principal land owners and the leading real estate and building company in Rome. This company has often been considered by both contemporaries and subsequently by scholars, as a symbol of the speculative forces which operated a negative influence over the urban growth of the Italian capital city. This article provides a survey of the activity and in particular of the numerous residential building initiatives of the Società Generale Immobiliare. It aims to evaluate the company’s actual role in the urban growth of Rome. Leading ideas, operating strategies and projects are illustrated, presenting both those initiatives which were carried out and those which were not.