The second generations: critical aspects and new forms of integration - The number of immigrant children in Italy has been increasing more and more. They are impacting both on immigration as a phenomenon and on receiving societies. Thus, it becomes important and useful to understand which factors matter in second generation’s paths and potential trajectories. Through a presentation of different analytical approaches on the phenomenon of migration, the paper explores the role of the family, the ethnic community and friends, as well as of religion and religious organizations in the promotion or prevention of positive forms of inclusion. With a specific focus on the Italian context, it explains the social and cultural transformation that characterises immigrant families, stressing the role that can be played by the human and social capital embedded in ethnic networks. The main aim of this paper is to go beyond the assimilation approaches and to highlight how immigrant families, ethnic networks and religious organizations could promote integration and the upward mobility of future generations. Keywords: Immigration, Second Generation, Ethnic Communities, Integration, Social Cohesion.