Parental Responsibility - European Law - Political sciences - Family customs. Attempts have been under way for several years now to harmonise the legal regulation of family relations in the context of the process of European integration. The concept of parental responsibility has come to occupy a privileged position among the common denominators shared by the various legislative orders: a very complex concept, it is also ambiguous in certain aspects if considered - as this article sets out to do - in the light of the various implications of the notion in areas of knowledge other than the law (moral philosophy, psychology, sociology and the science of education). In particular, the author high- lights how significant importance is attributed to the dimension of care in today’s more accredited representations of parental responsibility, while also making a critical analysis of the belief that has spread in the area of social and political sciences and that has been adopted in the actions of most governments: that the weakening of the social bond is primarily attributable to the fact that parents are not prepared to accept enough responsibility in educating and disciplining their children. Parental responsibility is also examined as a social practice that lends itself to being considered an exemplary form of "living law". In this sense, special significance is attributed to the different forms - social or additional - of parenthood in recomposed or single-parent families, which oblige legislators to tackle questions concerning the status of filial relationship.