In the centenary of his death, Lombroso spreads yet polemics. A Court stated for the first time the juridical relevance of behavioural genetics. Some say Lombroso criminology prelude, without knowing it, the discovery of genetic factors of development and brain function, and thus of the behaviour. Even if sincere supporter of enlightened institutional interventions, Lombroso was wrong from many points of view and polemics show the greatness of science to discuss, recognize, correct his errors and errors of medicine in the time in which he lived. The blunders of Lombroso teach how much caution is needed to assess the results of research. The significance of the biological factor remains a problem and a challenge. Today many fear that after having avoided the medicalization of crime, we can fall into bio-medicalization of crime. In the next centenary, the Lombroso biologism will be seen in the light of the consequences of our ability in applying contemporary genetics breakthroughs.
Keywords: Science, Medicine, Biology, Behaviour, Criminology, Lombroso