Main contemporary psychoanalytic theories are reviewed, and the major divergent trends are examined. In North America, the exchanges over the last twenty years between the American Psychoanalytic Association and other groups have favored the diffusion of relational psychoanalysis (Mitchell, Aron, etc.), now represented by about 50% of North American analysts. Exchanges with European analysts have favored also the neobionian approach (Ogden, Ferro, etc.). After a brief overview of the main aspects of neobionian and relational psychoanalyses, both approaches are criticized. While Freudian psychoanalytic theory and technique tried to include the highest number of variables, these two approaches neglect some important aspects: relational psychoanalysis neglects the exploration of the deepest aspects of the unconscious, and both approaches neglect the full exploration of present reality and character structure.
Keywords: Psychoanalytic theory, theoretical critique, psychoanalytic controversies, relational psychoanalysis, neobionian psychoanalysis]