Many studies deal with urban transformations of Italian cities after the unification of the country. These studies, in general, investigate the quantitative aspects of these renovations, in relation to the dimensional expansion of the cities, the construction of new infrastructures such as roads, railways, harbours, and so on, and the erection of huge public works for social purposes. On the contrary there are less studies on urban and territorial transformations produced by that phenomenon usually known as "national identity construction". The essay traces the origin of this phenomenon and focuses on the issues which were behind the construction. By underlining specific features, the study defines a type of "geography" (made up of an unlimited numbers of celebrative monuments, symbolic places, tablets, toponyomy and itineraries inspired by patriotism, restorations of so-called "National Monument") where the national identity construction plan took place. These particular representations of national identity are today an unavoidable feature of Italian cities, and require a plan for their protection and enhancement.
Keywords: National identity - Cities - Toponyomy - Monuments