This essay reconstructs the involvement of Nicola Chiaromonte in the Spanish Civil War. For very short this experience was in fact an episode of great importance for his biography(life experience). Chiaromonte was an anti-fascist which was exiled in France. In August 1936 Chiaromente went to Madrid convinced that the defense of the Spanish republic coincides with the beginning of an international mobilization against Fascism. There he becomes a bomber with the air squadron organized by his friend the writer Andre Malraux. At the end of November he returned to France because he feels exhausted revolutionary hopes that had animated the popular resistance to the military coup, also because of the increasingly important role assumed by the Communist International in the republican camp.
Keywords: Spanish Civil War, Italian anti-fascism, Andre Malraux, role of intellectuals, communism, politics and violence.