Between the sixteenth and the eighteenth century, the Jews settled in the Papal State were able to keep up their activities in the cities "without ghetto", from which Pope Pius V had expelled them in 1569, and where the central government did not officially permit to recreate a permanent Jewish presence. During these two centuries the Roman Inquisition authorized the Jews to return to their old lands just in order to attend seasonal
trade fairs. However, many cities allowed the Jews to remain even after the end of the fairs, just in order to favour the continuity of their trade. Sometimes the Jews evaded Papal prohibitions by taking advantage of the distance from Rome and of the lack of a careful control by the central inquisitors. In different cases, they were able to rebuild a durable presence until the end of the 18th century.
Keywords: Jews, Pope Pius V, Papal State, Roman Inquisition, city "without ghetto", trade fair.