The aim of the research is to study the capacity for self-evaluation of 271 primary school students undergoing tests involving mathematic and formal reasoning. Subjects were asked to estimate the number of correct answers and subsequently to compare their performance with that of their peers. The results demonstrate that all the subjects in all tests showed a significant negative relationship among real score and self - evaluation indices. Analyzing comparative assessments, the results reported in literature by Kruger and Dunning (1999) were confirmed: poor performers tend to significantly overestimate their own performance whilst top performers tend to underestimate it. This can be interpreted as a demonstration that the accuracy of comparative self-evaluations depends on a number of variables: cognitive and metacognitive factors and aspects associated with self-representation. To verify these aspects we examined bias in self evaluation from an attributional perspective too. Our conclusion is that cognitive and metacognitive processes work as "submerged" in highly subjective representations, allowing dynamics related to safeguarding the image one has of oneself to play a role.
Keywords: Metacognition, self- evaluation, cognitive performance, attributive style.