Click here to download

Depression, anxiety and paternal styles in a sample of fathers with premature babies
Journal Title: PSICOLOGIA DELLA SALUTE 
Author/s: Chiara Patruno, Flaminia Odorisio, Renata Tambelli 
Year:  2015 Issue: Language: Italian 
Pages:  19 Pg. 7-25 FullText PDF:  124 KB
DOI:  10.3280/PDS2015-002002
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 


The purpose of the present study aims at assessing the experiences of depression and anxiety in fathers of premature babies and at showing how such experiences can affect the paternal representations and the emotional availability in free-play interactions. A group of 68 fathers has been selected and endowed with the following instruments: the STAI-Y1 self-report in order to detect the status anxiety; the EPDS in order to evaluate the depressive symptomatology; the IRPAN interview in order to assess the parental representation at 4th month of corrected age and the videotape of interactive sequences that have been coded by rating scales of the EAS interaction at 6th month. The results highlighted that the fathers of premature babies show a 32% risk of anxiety, a 19% risk of depression, a prevalence of 50% integrated/balanced representations, 45% restricted/ disinvested representations and 4% non-integrated/ambivalent representations. In the present study the anxious fathers have a less effective interaction than those who do not show an anxious symptomatology, proving to be less sensitive since they do not effectively structure the recreational interaction and sometimes becoming intrusive. The children of these fathers are less involved in the interaction with the adult. The results showed that depressed fathers are less sensitive in the interaction with their children. The data about the influence of parental representation on the interaction explained how fathers with an integrated/ balanced representation, while showing high levels of anxiety, are characterized as able to effectively structure the recreational interaction - unlike the other representation’s categories - therefore demonstrating how the anxiety factor is functional to their abilities.
Keywords: Premature birth, parenting, paternal depression, paternal anxiety, paternal representations, father-child interactions

  1. Ammaniti M., Tambelli R. and Odorisio F. (2006). Intervista clinica per lo studio delle rappresentazioni paterne in gravidanza: IRPAG. Età Evolutiva, 85: 34-44, ISSN: 0392-0658.
  2. Ammaniti M., Speranza A.M., Tambelli R., Muscetta S., Lucarelli L., Vismara L., Odorisio F. and Cimino S. (2006). A prevention and promotion intervention program in the field of mother-infant relationship. Infant Mental Health Journal, 27: 70-90., DOI: 10.1002/imhj.20081
  3. Auslander G.K., Netzer D. and Arad I. (2003). Parental Anxiety Following Discharge from Hospital of Their Very Low Birth Weight Infants. Family Relations, 52: 12-21., DOI: 10.1111/j.1741-3729.2003.00012.x
  4. Baldoni F. (2005). Funzione paterna e attaccamento di coppia: l’importanza di una base sicura. In: Bertozzi N. e Hamon C., a cura di, Padri & paternità. Bergamo: Ed. Junior, 79-102.
  5. Baldoni F. and Ceccarelli L. (2010). La depressione perinatale paterna. Una rassegna della ricerca clinica ed empirica. Infanzia e Adolescenza, 9(2): 79-92.
  6. Ballard C.G., Davis R., Handy S. and Mohan R.N. (1993). Postpartum anxiety in mothers and fathers. European Journal of Psychiatry, 7(2): 117-121.
  7. Benvenuti P., Ferrara M., Niccolai C., Valoriani V. and Cox J.L. (1999). The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: validation for an Italian sample. Journal of Affective Disorders, 53: 137-141., DOI: 10.1016/S0165-0327(98)00102-5
  8. Bielawska-Batorowicz E. and Kossakowska-Petrycka K. (2006). Depressive mood in men after the birth of their offspring in relation to a partner’s depression, social support, fathers’ personality and prenatal expectations. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 24(1): 21-29., DOI: 10.1080/02646830500475179
  9. Biringen Z., Robinson J.L. and Emde R.N. (1998). The Emotional Availability Scale, 3rd ed. Colorado State University: Department of Human Development & Family Studies.
  10. Bradley R., Slade P. and Leviston A. (2008). Low rates of PTSD in men attending childbirth: A preliminary study. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 47(3): 295-302., DOI: 10.1348/014466508X279495
  11. Bradley R. and Slade P. (2011). A review of mental health problems in fathers following the birth of a child. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 29 (1): 19-42., DOI: 10.1080/02646838.2010.513047
  12. Carter J.D., Mulder R.T., Frampton C.M.A. and Darlow B.A. (2007). Infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit: parental psychological status at 9 months. Acta Pædiatrica, 96(9): 1286-1289., DOI: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2007.00425.x
  13. Chung E.K., McCollum K.F. and Elo I.T. (2004). Maternal depressive symptoms and infant health practices among low-income women. Pediatrics, 113: 523-529., DOI: 10.1542/peds.113.6.e523
  14. Cox J.L., Holden J.M. and Sagovsky R. (1987). Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-items Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150: 782-786., DOI: 10.1192/bjp.150.6.782
  15. Davis L., Edwards H., Mohay H. and Wollin J. (2003).The impact of very premature birth on the psychological health of mothers. Early Human Development, 73: 61-70., DOI: 10.1016/S0378-3782(03)00073-2
  16. Deater-Deckard K., Pickering K., Dunn J.F. and Golding J. (1998).Family structure and depressive symptoms in men preceding and following the birth of a child. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155 (6): 818-823.
  17. Doering L.V., Moser D.K. and Dracup K. (2000).Correlates of anxiety, hostility, depression and psychosocial adjustment in parents of NICU infants. Neonatal Network, 19(5): 15-23., DOI: 10.1891/0730-0832.19.5.15
  18. Edmondson O.J.H., Psychogiou L., Vlachos H., Netsi E. and Ramchandani P.G. (2010). Depression in fathers in the postnatal period: assessment of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale as a screening measure. Journal of Affective Disorders, 125: 362-368., DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2010.01.069
  19. Feldman R. and Eidelman A.I. (2007). Maternal postpartum behavior and the emergence of infant-mother and infant-father synchrony in preterm and full-term infants: The role of neonatal vagal tone. Developmental Psychobiology, 49, 3: 290-302., DOI: 10.1002/dev.20220
  20. Figueiredo B. and Conde A. (2011) Anxiety and depression in women and men from early pregnancy to 3-months postpartum. Arch Womens Ment Health, 14 (3): 247-55., DOI: 10.1007/s00737-011-0217-3
  21. Goodman J.H. (2004). Paternal Postpartum depression, its relationship to maternal postpartum depression and implications for family health. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 45 (1): 26-35., DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2648.2003.02857.x
  22. Holditch-Davis D., Miles M.S. and Belyea M. (2000). Feeding and non-feeding interactions of mothers and prematures. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 22 (3): 320-334., DOI: 10.1177/01939450022044449
  23. Korja R., Savonlahti E., Haataja L., Lapinleimu H., Manninen H., Piha J. and Lehtonen, L. (2009). Attachment representations in mothers of preterm infants. Infant Behavior and Development, 32, 3: 305-311., DOI: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2009.04.003
  24. Lamb M., Pleck J. and Charnov E. (1987). A biosocial perspective on paternal behavior and involvement. In: Lancaster J., Altmain J., Rossi A. Parenting across the lifespain. Biosocial perspectives, New York Academic Press, 11-42.
  25. Lindberg B. (2007). The birth of premature infants: Experiences from the fathers’ perspective. Journal of Neonatal Nursing, 13(4): 142-149., DOI: 10.1016/j.jnn.2007.05.004
  26. Luca D. and Bydlowski M. (2001). Dépression Paternelle et périnatalité. [Paternaldepression and perinatal]. Le CarnetPsy, 67: 28-33.
  27. Lundqvist P. (2007). From distance toward proximity: fathers lived experience of caring for their preterm infants. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 22(6): 490-497., DOI: 10.1016/j.pedn.2007.04.008
  28. Matthey S., Barnett B., Ungerer J. and Waters B. (2000). Paternal and maternal depressed mood during the transition to parenthood. Journal of Affective Disorders, 60: 75-85., DOI: 10.1016/S0165-0327(99)00159-7
  29. Matthey S., Barnett B., Kavanagh D.J. and Howie P. (2001). Validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale for men and comparison of item endorsement with their partners. Journal of Affective Disorder, 64 (2-3): 175-184., DOI: 10.1016/S0165-0327(00)00236-6
  30. Matthey S., Barnett B., Howie P. and Kavanagh D.J. (2003). Diagnosing postpartum depression in mothers and fathers: whatever happened to anxiety? Journal of Affective Disorders, 74: 139-147., DOI: 10.1016/S0165-0327(02)00012-5
  31. Matthey S., Kavanagh D.J., Howie P., Barnett B. and Charles M. (2004). Prevention of postnatal distress or depression: an evaluation of an intervention at preparation for parenthood classes. Journal Affective Disorders, 79(1-3): 113-126,, DOI: 10.1016/S0165-0327(02)00362-2
  32. Melrose S. (2010). Paternal postpartum depression: how can nurses begin to help? Contemp Nurse, 2: 199-210., DOI: 10.5172/conu.2010.34.2.199
  33. Meijssen D., Wolf M.J., van Bakel H., Koldewijn K., Kok J. and van Baar A. (2011). Maternal attachment representations after very preterm birth and the effect of early intervention. Infant Behavior and Development, 34(1): 72-80., DOI: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2010.09.009
  34. Miles M.S., Funk S.G. and Kasper M.A. (2007). The stress response of mothers and fathers of preterm infants. Research in Nursing & Health, 15(4): 261-269., DOI: 10.1002/nur.4770150405
  35. Miles M.S., Holditch-Davis D., Schwartz T.A. and Scher M. (2007). Depressive symptoms in mothers of prematurely born infants. Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics, 28 (1): 36-44., DOI: 10.1097/01.DBP.0000257517.52459.7a.
  36. Monti F., Agostini F. and Neri E. (2013). Il trauma della nascita pretermine e la sintomatologia ansiosa-depressiva materna. In: Sansavini A., Faldella G. (a cura di). Lo sviluppo neuropsicologico dei bambini nati pretermine: percorsi evolutivi, metodi di valutazione e interventi [Neuropsychological development of children born preterm: evolutionary paths, methods of assessment and intervention]. Milano: Franco Angeli, 137-146.
  37. Müller-Nix C. and Ansermet F. (2009). Prematurity, risk and protective factors. In: Zeanah C., Handbook of Infant Mental Health. New York: Guilford Press.
  38. Musser A.K., Ahmed A.H., Foli K.J. and Coddington J.A. (2013). Paternal Postpartum Depression: What Health Care Providers Should Know. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 27(6): 479-485., DOI: 10.1016/j.pedhc.2012.10.001
  39. Nazareth I. (2011). Should men be screened and treated for postnatal depression. Expert Reviews Ltd, 11: 1-3.
  40. Nishimura A. and Ohashi K. (2010). Risk factors of paternal depression in the early postnatal period in Japan. Nursing & Health Science, 12 (2): 170-176., DOI: 10.1111/j.1442-2018.2010.00513.x
  41. Paulson J. F. and Bazemore S. D. (2010). Prenatal and postpartum depression in fathers and its association with maternal depression. Journal of American Medical Association, 303(19): 1961-1969., DOI: 10.1001/jama.2010.605
  42. Pedrabissi L. and Santinello M. (1989). Inventario per L’ansia di Stato e di Tratto (STAI), [Anxiety Inventory for State and Trait]. Firenze: O.S. Firenze.
  43. Ramchandani P., Stein A., Evans J. and O’Connor T.G. (2005). Paternal depression in the postnatal period and child development: A prospective population study. The Lancet, 365: 2201-2205., DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66778-5
  44. Raskin V., Richman J.A. and Gaines C. (1990). Patterns of depressive symptoms in expectant and new parents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147 (5): 658-660.
  45. Righetti P L and Sette L. (2000). Non c’è due senza tre. Le emozioni dell’attesa dalla genitorialità alla prenatalità [Thereis no twowithoutthree. The emotions of expectation from parenting to prenatalità]. Torino: Bollati Boringhieri.
  46. Shields-Poe D. and Pinelli J. (1997). Variables associated with parental stress in neonatal intensive care units. Neonatal Network, 16: 29-37.
  47. Skari H., Skreden M., Malt U.F., Dalholt M., Ostensen A.B., Egeland T. and Emblem R. (2002). Comparative levels of psychological distress, stress symptoms, depression and anxiety after childbirth-a prospective population-based study of mothers and fathers.
  48. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 109 (10): 1154-1163., DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2002.00468.x
  49. Spielberger C.D., Gorsuch R.L., Lushene R.E., Vagg P.R. and Jacobs G.A. (1983). State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults. Palo Alto, CA: Mind Garden.
  50. Tambelli R. and Odorisio F. (2013). Gli effetti della comorbidità della depressione e dell’ansia sulle rappresentazioni materne e sull’interazione con il bambino. Infanzia e Adolescenza, (3): 197-206., DOI: 10.1710/1348.14992
  51. Tambelli R., Odorisio F. and Lucarelli L. (2014). Prenatal and Postnatal maternal representations in non-risk and at-risk parenting: exploring the influences on mother-infant feeding interactions. Infant Mental Health Journal, Vol. 35(4): 376-388., DOI: 10.1002/imhj.21448
  52. Tooten A., Hall R.A.S., Hoffenkamp H.N., Braeken J., Vingerhoets A.J.J.M. and van Bakel A.M. (2014). Maternal and paternal infant representations: A comparison between parents of term and preterm infants. Infant Behavior and Development, 37: 366-379., DOI: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2014.05.004
  53. Tracey N. (2000). Parents of premature infants: their emotional world. London: Whurr.
  54. van Ijzendoorn M.H. (1995). Adult attachment representations, parental responsiveness and infant attachment: a meta-analysis on the predictive validity of the Adult Attachment Interview. Psychological Bulletin, 117: 387-403.
  55. van Ijzendoorn M.H. and De Wolff M.S. (1997). In Search of the Absent Father – Meta-Analyses of Infant-Father Attachment: A Rejoinder to Our Discussants. Child Development, 68: 604-609., DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1997.tb04223.x
  56. Zelkowitz P., Bardin C. and Papageorgiou A. (2007). Anxiety affects the relationship between parents and their very low birth weight infants. Infant Mental Health Journal, 28(3): 296-313., DOI: 10.1002/imhj.20137
  57. Wee KY1, Skouteris H., Pier C., Richardson B. and Milgrom J. (2011). Correlates of anteand postnatal depression in fathers: a systematic review. Journal of Affective Disorders, 130(3): 358-77., DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2010.06.019
  58. Whiffen V. and Johnson S. (1998). An attachment theory framework for the treatment of childbearing depression. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 5(4): 478-493., DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2850.1998.tb00168.x

Chiara Patruno, Flaminia Odorisio, Renata Tambelli, Depression, anxiety and paternal styles in a sample of fathers with premature babies in "PSICOLOGIA DELLA SALUTE" 2/2015, pp. 7-25, DOI:10.3280/PDS2015-002002

   

FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content