Clicca qui per scaricare

«Zero-hours contracts» in the United Kingdom: regulating casualwork, or legitimating precarity?
Titolo Rivista: GIORNALE DI DIRITTO DEL LAVORO E DI RELAZIONI INDUSTRIALI  
Autori/Curatori: Abi Adams, Mark Freedland, Jeremias Prassl 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2015 Fascicolo: 148 Lingua: Inglese 
Numero pagine:  25 P. 529-553 Dimensione file:  125 KB
DOI:  10.3280/GDL2015-148001
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 


Nel Regno Unito i c.d. "contratti a zero ore", o intermittenti, costituiscono una tra le questioni piú importanti degli ultimi anni, e hanno portato il governo a regolarli nell’ambito della legge del 2015 su Small Business, Enterprise and Employment. In questo articolo gli A. presentano ed esaminano l’emergere del dato legale ed empirico del lavoro prestato in base a tale forma contrattuale e suggeriscono che, mentre ha tardato ad arrivare una sistemazione giuridica di tali contratti poiché considerati una questione irrisolta del mercato del lavoro, il pensiero corrente riguardo ad essi è sostanzialmente debole: non esiste un’entità che comprenda i contratti a zero ore come categoria a se stante; l’etichetta ha la funzione non meno che di una comoda espressione per mascherare la crescita esplosiva del lavoro precario prestato da una forza lavoro altamente frammentata. La recente "regolazione" dei contratti a zero ore, che si limita in realtà a vietare le clausole di esclusiva, pertanto costituisce nient’altro che uno spostamento significativo verso la normalizzazione di qualsiasi manifestazione estrema di forme contrattuali abusive, lasciando un numero crescente di lavoratori privi del ricorso alle norme di protezione. Nella conclusione si indica la via per un approccio maggiormente coerente alla de-normalizzazione e disciplina di questo rilevante e crescente insieme di forme negoziali precarie.


Keywords: Contratti a zero ore; Subordinazione; Clausole di esclusiva; Lavoro intermittente

  1. Adams Z., Deakin S. (2014). Work Is Intermittent But Capital is Not: What To Do About Zero Hours Contracts. IER Blog, 1 May 2014. http://www.ier.org.uk/blog/work-intermittent-capital-not-what-do-about-zero-hours-contracts, accessed 10 June 2014.
  2. Adams A., Prassl J. (2015). Labour Legislation and Evidence-Based Public Policy: A Case Study. In: Blackham A., Ludlow A. (eds.), New Frontiers in Empirical Labour Law Research. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
  3. Aglionby J. (2013). “One million” UK Workers on Zero Hours Contracts. FT, 5 August 2013.
  4. Albin E. (2013). The Case of Qashie: Between the Legalisation of Sex Work and the Precariousness of Personal Service Work. ILJ, p. 180 ff.
  5. Aziz M. et al. (2008). Hard Work, Hidden Lives: The Full Report. London: TUC Commission on Vulnerable Employment.
  6. Barmes L. (2012). Learning from Case Law Accounts of Marginalised Working. In: Fudge J., McCrystal S., Sankaran K. (eds.), Challenging the Legal Boundaries of Work Regulation. Oñati International Series in Law and Society Hart.
  7. Barnard C. (1999). The Working Time Regulations 1998. ILJ, p. 61 ff.
  8. BIS (2013). Consultation: Zero Hours Employment Contracts. London.
  9. Bogg A. (2012). Sham Self-Employment in the Supreme Court. ILJ, p. 328 ff.
  10. Brinkley I. (2013). Flexibility or insecurity? Exploring the Rise in Zero Hours Contracts. London: The Work Foundation.
  11. Busyby N., McDermont M. (2012). Workers, Marginalised Voices and the Employment Tribunal System: Some Preliminary Findings. ILJ, p. 166 ff.
  12. Clement B. (1995). Burger King pays £ 106,000 to Staff Forced to “Clock Off”. Ind., 19 December 1995.
  13. Collins H. (2000). Employment Rights of Casual Workers. ILJ, p. 73 ff.
  14. Collins H. (2009). Book Review: D. McCann Regulating Flexible Work (Oxford, OUP 2008). MLR, p. 141 ff.
  15. Collins H., Ewing K., McColgan A. (2012). Labour Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  16. Countouris N. (2014). Uses and Misuses of “Mutuality of Obligations” and the Autonomy of Labour Law. In: Bogg A., Costello C., Davies A., Prassl J. (eds.), The Autonomy of Labour Law. Oxford: Hart publishing (forthcoming).
  17. Davies A. (2006). Casual Workers and Continuity of Employment. ILJ, p. 196 ff.
  18. Deakin S. (1998). The Evolution of the Contract of Employment, 1900 to 1950. The Influence of the Welfare State. In: Whiteside N., Salais R. (eds.), Governance, Industry and Labour Markets in Britain and France. The Modernising State in the Mid-Twentieth Century. London: Routledge.
  19. Deakin S., Morris G. (2012). Labour Law. 6th ed. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
  20. Dickens L. (1997). Exploring the Atypical: Zero Hours Contracts. ILJ, p. 262 ff.
  21. DTI (1998). Fairness at Work. White Paper. London.
  22. DTI (2006). Success at Work: Protecting Vulnerable Workers, Supporting Good Employers. London.
  23. European Parliament (2010). Atypical Contracts, Secured Professional Paths, Flexicurity and New Forms of Social Dialogue. Report A7-0193. Brussels.
  24. Fredman S. (1997). Labour Law in Flux: The Changing Composition of the Workforce. ILJ, p. 337 ff.
  25. Freedland M. (1976). The Contract of Employment. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  26. Freedland M. (2007). The Contract for Intermittent Employment. ILJ, p. 102 ff.
  27. Freedland M., Kountouris N. (2012). The Legal Construction of Personal Work Relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  28. Graven K. (1997). Zero Hours Contracts: A Report into the Incidence and Implications of Such Contracts. University of Huddersfield.
  29. Groom B. (2014). Employers Face Greater Challenges, Says ACAS Chairman. FT, 16 March 2014.
  30. HM Government (2014). Queen’s Speech 2014. London, June 2014.
  31. Horton J. (2010). Online Labor Markets. In: Saberi A. (ed.), WINE 2010. Berlin: Springer.
  32. Kersley B. et al. (2005). Inside the Workplace: First Findings from the 2004 Workplace Employment Relations Survey. London: DTI.
  33. Leighton P. (1984). Employment Status and the “Casual Worker”. ILJ, p. 62 ff.
  34. Leighton P. (2002). Problems Continue for Zero-Hours Workers. ILJ, p. 71 ff.
  35. Leighton P., Painter R. (1997). “Task” and “Global” Contracts of Employment. ILJ, p. 127 ff.
  36. Leighton P., Wynn M. (2011). Classifying Employment Relationships. More Sliding Doors or a Better Regulatory Framework. ILJ, p. 5 ff.
  37. Lo Faro A. (2002). Fairness at Work? The Italian White Paper on Labour Market Reform. ILJ, p. 190 ff.
  38. Lourie J. (1998). Fairness at Work . Research Paper 98/99. London: HC Library.
  39. McCann D. (2008). Regulating Flexible Work. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  40. McColgan A. (1997). Just Wages for Women. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  41. Munck R. (2003). Labour and Globalisation: Results and Prospects. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  42. O’Connor J. (2013). Precarious Employment and EU Employment Regulation. In: Ramia G., Farnsworth K., Irving Z. (eds.), Social Policy Review 25: Analysis and Debate in Social Policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  43. ONS (2013a). Zero Hours Contract Levels and Percent 2000 to 2012. Available at http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/about-ons/business-transparency/freedom-of-information/what-can-i-request/published-ad-hoc-data/labour/july-2013/index.html, accessed 10 June 2014.
  44. ONS (2013b). User Guide: Volume 2. Questionnaire, Labour Force Survey. London.
  45. ONS (2013c). ONS Announces Additional Estimate of Zero-Hours Contracts. Press Release, 22 August 2013.
  46. ONS (2014). Analysis of Employee Contracts that do no Guarantee a Minimum Number of Hours. London.
  47. ONS (2014b). User Guide: Volume 3. Details of LFS Variables, Labour Force Survey. London.
  48. ONS (2015). Contracts with No Guaranteed Hours, Employee contracts that do not guarantee a minimum number of hours: 2015 update. Press Release, 2 September 2015.
  49. Paz-Fuchs A. (2008). Welfare to Work: Conditional Rights in Social Policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  50. Peel E. (2011). Treitel’s Law of Contract. 13th ed. London: Sweet & Maxwell.
  51. Peers S. (2013). Equal Treatment of Atypical Workers: A New Frontier for EU Law. YEL, p. 30 ff.
  52. Pennycook M., Cory G., Alakeson V. (2013). A Matter of Time: The rise of zero-hours contracts. London: Resolution Foundation.
  53. Prassl J. (2013a). The Notion of the Employer. LQR, p. 380 ff.
  54. Prassl J. (2013b). Employee Shareholder “Status”: Dismantling the Contract of Employment. ILJ, p. 307 ff.
  55. Prassl J. (2015). The Concept of the Employer. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  56. Read S. (2014). Queen’s Speech: Two Steps Forward, One Step Back for Pensions. Ind., 4 June 2014.
  57. Rideout R. (2000). The Lack of Principles in Labour Law. CLP, p. 409 ff.
  58. Shildrick T., MacDonald R., Webster C. (2012). Poverty and Insecurity: Life in Low-Pay, No-Pay Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  59. Simpson B. (1998). Research and Reports. ILJ, p. 245 ff.
  60. Simpson B. (1999). The National Minimum Wage Act 1998. ILJ, p. 1 ff.
  61. Watson L. (1995). Employees and the Unfair Contract Terms Act. ILJ, p. 323 ff.
  62. Wynn M., Leighton P. (2009). Agency Workers, Employment Rights and the Ebb and Flow of Freedom of Contract. MLR, p. 91 ff.



  1. Abi Adams, Zoe Adams, Jeremias Prassl, Zero Hours and On-call Work in Anglo-Saxon Countries pp. 41 (ISBN:978-981-13-6612-3)

Abi Adams, Mark Freedland, Jeremias Prassl, in "GIORNALE DI DIRITTO DEL LAVORO E DI RELAZIONI INDUSTRIALI " 148/2015, pp. 529-553, DOI:10.3280/GDL2015-148001

   

FrancoAngeli è membro della Publishers International Linking Association associazione indipendente e no profit per facilitare l'accesso degli studiosi ai contenuti digitali nelle pubblicazioni professionali e scientifiche