Click here to download

Self as Contact. Contact as Self. A Contribution for the Ground Experience in Gestalt Therapy Theory of Self
Journal Title: QUADERNI DI GESTALT 
Author/s: Margherita Spagnuolo Lobb 
Year:  2015 Issue: Language: Italian 
Pages:  32 Pg. 25-56 FullText PDF:  379 KB
DOI:  10.3280/GEST2015-002003
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 


This work hermeneutically revisits the original theory of self in Perls, Hefferline and Goodman (1951), in the light of social change and contemporary clinical evidence. Its aim is to develop innovative aspects of the phenomenological and aesthetic soul of Gestalt therapy approach that are useful in contemporary society. Beginning with the definition of "self as contact" (hence as "experience of the world"), the author focuses then on the background experience. In this way, she includes developmental aspects of the experience of the client as well as psychopathological aspects in the unitary concept of self - as - unfolding in the here and now. These aspects were originally banned from the theory of self as if they were an obstacle to the phenomenological view of the actual experience of the client. In this way, the author realizes a concept of self that includes the co-created figure at the contact boundary as well as the ground experience: developmental patterns of contact-making and the rigid and desensitized perception. These characterize the suffering of the between. She also considers the role of the therapist’s own experience using the therapist’s "aesthetic relational knowledge" as a tool, which is the sensory intelligence of the shared phenomenological field.
Keywords: Theory of self, phenomenology, esthetic relational knowledge, figure, ground, development, psychopathology, phenomenological field, sensory intelligence, here and now, now for next.

  1. Beebe B., Jaffe J., Lachmann F.M. (1992). A Dyadic Systems View of Communication. In: Skolnick N., Warshaw S., eds., Relational Perspectives in Psychoanalysis. Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press, 61-81.
  2. Bloom D.J. (1997). Self: Structuring/Functioning. Unpublished manuscript presented at New York Institute for Gestalt Therapy, 8th January.
  3. Bloom D.J. (2003). “Tiger! Tiger! Burning Bright” – Aesthetic Values as Clinical Values in Gestalt Therapy. In: Spagnuolo Lobb M., Amendt-Lyon N., eds., Creative License. The Art of Gestalt Therapy. Wien, New York: Springer, 63-77.
  4. Bloom D.J. (2007). “Tigre! Tigre! Che splendente bruci”: valori estetici come valori clinici in psicoterapia della Gestalt. In: Spagnuolo Lobb M., Amendt-Lyon N., a cura di, Il permesso di creare. L’arte della psicoterapia della Gestalt. Milano: FrancoAngeli, 98-115.
  5. Bottaccioli F. (2014). Epigenetica e psiconeuroendocrinoimmunologia. Le due facce della Rivoluzione in corso nelle scienze della vita. Milano: EDRA.
  6. Cascio A.R. (2011). La funzione dell’emergenza in “Teoria e pratica della terapia della Gestalt: vitalità e accrescimento nella personalità umana”. Quaderni di Gestalt, XXIV, 1: 25-34., 10.3280/GEST2011-001003DOI: 10.3280/GEST2011-001003
  7. Cavaleri P.A. (2001). Dal campo al confine di contatto. Contributo per una riconsiderazione del confine di contatto in psicoterapia della Gestalt. In: Spagnuolo Lobb M., a cura di, Psicoterapia della Gestalt. Ermeneutica e clinica. Milano: FrancoAngeli, 42-64.
  8. Clarkin J.F., Yeomans F.E., Kernberg O.F. (2000). Psicoterapia delle personalità borderline. Milano: Raffaello Cortina.
  9. Clemmens M. (2011). The Interactive Field: Gestalt Therapy as an Embodied Dialogue. In: Bar-Yoseph Levine T., ed., Gestalt Therapy: Advances in Theory and Practice. London: Routledge.
  10. Clemmens M., Frank R., Smith E. (2008). Somatic Experience and Emergent Dysfunction: Gestalt Therapists in Dialogue and in Response to Questions from the Editors and from Eugene Gendlin. Studies in Gestalt Therapy, 2, 2: 11-39.
  11. Damasio A.R. (1994). Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason and the Human Brain. New York: Putnam (trad. it.: L’errore di Cartesio. Emozione, ragione e cervello umano. Milano: Adelphi, 1995).
  12. Damasio A.R. (2012). Il sé viene alla mente. La costruzione del cervello cosciente. Milano: Adelphi.
  13. Fabbrini A., Melucci A. (2000). L’età dell’oro. Adolescenti tra sogno ed esperienza. Milano: Feltrinelli.
  14. Fogel A. (1993). Developing Through Relationships. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  15. Francesetti G., ed. (2015). Absence Is a Bridge Between Us. Gestalt Therapy Perspective on Depressive Experiences. Siracusa: Istituto di Gestalt HCC Italy Publ. Co.
  16. Francesetti G., Gecele M. (2009). A Gestalt Therapy Perspective on Psychopathology and Diagnosis. British Gestalt Journal, 18, 2: 5-20.
  17. Francesetti G., Spagnuolo Lobb M. (2013). Beyond the Pillars of Hercules. A Gestalt Therapy Perspective of Psychotic Experiences. In: Francesetti G., Gecele M., Roubal J., eds., Gestalt Therapy in Clinical Practice. From Psychopathology to the Aesthetics of Contact. Milano: FrancoAngeli, 399-434 (trad. it.: Oltre le colonne d’Ercole. La psicoterapia della Gestalt con le esperienze psicotiche. In: Francesetti G., Gecele M., Roubal J., a cura di, La psicoterapia della Gestalt nella pratica clinica. Dalla psicopatologia all’estetica del contatto. Milano: FrancoAngeli, 2014, 439-478).
  18. Frank R. (2001). Body of Awareness: A Somatic and Developmental Approach to Psychotherapy. Cambridge, MA: Gestalt Press (trad. it.: Il corpo consapevole. Un approccio somatico ed evolutivo alla psicoterapia. Milano: FrancoAngeli, 2005).
  19. Gallese V. (2007). Dai neuroni specchio alla consonanza intenzionale. Meccanismi neurofisiologici dell’intersoggettività. Rivista di Psicoanalisi, 53, 1: 197-208.
  20. Gallese V., Eagle M.N., Migone P. (2007). Intentional Attunement: Mirror Neurons and the Neural Underpinnings of Interpersonal Relations. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 55, 1: 131-176., 10.1177/0003065107055001060DOI: 10.1177/0003065107055001060
  21. Gardner H. (1985). The Mind’s New Science. A History of the Cognitive Revolution. New York, NY: Basic Books.
  22. Hodges C. (1997). Field Theory. Unpublished manuscript presented at New York Institute for Gestalt Therapy.
  23. Jacobs L. (1995). Dialogue in Gestalt Theory and Therapy. In: Hycner R., Jacobs L., eds., The Healing Relationship in Gestalt Therapy: A Dialogic/Self Psychology Approach. Highland, NY: The Gestalt Journal Press, 51-84.
  24. Jacobs L., Hycner R., eds. (2009). Relational Approaches in Gestalt Therapy. New York: A Gestalt Press Book.
  25. Kepner J.I. (1993). Body Process. Working with the Body in Psychotherapy. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc.
  26. Kitzler R. (2007). The Ambiguities of Origins: Pragmatism, the University of Chicago, and Paul Goodman’s Self. Studies in Gestalt Therapy. Dialogical Bridges, 1, 1: 41-63.
  27. Latner J. (1973). The Gestalt Therapy Book: A Holistic Guide to the Theory Principles and Techniques of Gestalt Therapy. New York: Julian Press.
  28. Levi N. (2013). The Gilded Cage of Creative Adjustment: A Gestalt Approach to Psychotherapy with Children and Adolescents. In: Francesetti G., Gecele M., Roubal J., eds., Gestalt Therapy in Clinical Practice. From Psychopathology to the Aesthetics of Contact. Milano: FrancoAngeli, 265-280.
  29. Macaluso M.A. (2012). Oltre il modello Perls-Goodman. Dal campo organismo/ambiente al campo relazionale. Quaderni di Gestalt, XXV, 2: 67-84., 10.3280/GEST2012-002005DOI: 10.3280/GEST2012-002005
  30. Maturana H., Varela F. (1992). L’albero della conoscenza. Milano: Garzanti.
  31. McConville M. (2002). The Gift. In: Bar-Yoseph Levine T. ed., The Bridges: Dialogues Across Cultures. Metairie, LA: Gestalt Institute Press.
  32. McConville M. (2005). The Gift. In: Bar-Yoseph Levine T., ed., Making a Difference: the Bridging of Cultural Diversity. New Orleans, LA: Gestalt Institute Press, 173-182.
  33. McLeod L. (1993). The Self in Gestalt Therapy Theory. British Gestalt Journal, 2: 25-40.
  34. Melnick J., Nevis S.M. (1997). Diagnosing in the Here and Now: the Experience Cycle and DSM-IV. British Gestalt Journal, 6, 2: 97-106.
  35. Miller V.M. (2003). The Aesthetics of Commitment: What Gestalt Therapists Can Learn from Cézanne and Miles Davis. In: Spagnuolo Lobb M., Amendt-Lyon N., eds., Creative License. The Art of Gestalt Therapy. Vienna: Springer, 153-161 (trad. it.: L’estetica dell’impegno: quello che i terapeuti della Gestalt possono imparare da Cézanne e Miles Davis. In: Spagnuolo Lobb M., Amendt-Lyon N., a cura di, Il permesso di creare. L’arte della psicoterapia della Gestalt. Milano: FrancoAngeli, 2007, 202-213).
  36. Miller V.M. (2011). Teaching a Paranoid to Flirt: The Poetics of Gestalt Therapy. Gouldsboro, ME: The Gestalt Journal Press.
  37. Mione M., Conte E. (2004). Postmodernità e relazione educativa: l’età della fanciullezza. In: Romano R.G., a cura di, Ciclo di vita e dinamiche educative nella società postmoderna. Milano: FrancoAngeli, 93-125.
  38. Nijenhuis E.R.S. (2014). Ten Reasons for Conceiving and Classifying Post Traumatic Stress Disorder as a Dissociative Disorder. Psichiatria e Psicoterapia, 33: 74-106.
  39. Oaklander V. (1978). Windows To Our Children: A Gestalt Therapy Approach to Children and Adolescents. Moab, UT: Real People Press (trad. it.: Il gioco che guarisce. La psicoterapia della Gestalt con bambini e adolescenti. Catania: EPC, 2009).
  40. Odgen T.H. (1989). The Primitive Edge of Experience. Northvale, NJ, London: Jason Aronson Inc. (trad. it.: Il limite primigenio dell’esperienza. Roma: Astrolabio, 1992).
  41. O’Leary E. (1992). Gestalt Therapy: Theory, Practice, and Research. New York: Chapman & Hall.
  42. Orange D. (2011). The Suffering Stranger: Hermeneutics for Everyday Clinical Practice. New York, NY and Hove, East Sussex, UK: Routledge-Taylor & Francis Group.
  43. Orange D., Atwood G., Stolorow R. (1997). Working Intersubjectively: Contextualism in Psychoanalytic Practice. Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press.
  44. Parlett M. (2003), Creative Abilities and the Art of Living Well. In: Spagnuolo Lobb M., Amendt-Lyon N., eds., Creative License. The Art of Gestalt Therapy. Wien, New York: Springer, 51-62 (trad. it.: Abilità creative e l’arte di vivere bene. In: Spagnuolo Lobb M., Amendt-Lyon N., a cura di, Il permesso di creare. L’arte della psicoterapia della Gestalt. Milano: FrancoAngeli, 2007, 82-97).
  45. Parlett M. (2005). Contemporary Gestalt Therapy: Field Theory. In: Woldt A.L., Toman S.M., eds., Gestalt Therapy: History, Theory, and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 41-63.
  46. Perls F. (1942/1947/1969a). Ego, Hunger and Aggression: A Revision of Freud’s Theory and Method. London: G. Allen & Unwin, 1947; New York: Random House, 1969 
(trad. it.: L’Io, la fame e l’aggressività. Milano: FrancoAngeli, 1995).
  47. Perls F. (1969b). Gestalt Therapy Verbatim. Moab, UT: Real People Press (trad. it.: La terapia gestaltica parola per parola. Roma: Astrolabio).
  48. Perls F., Hefferline R., Goodman P. (1994, ed. or. 1951). Gestalt Therapy: Excitement and Growth in the Human Personality. New York: The Gestalt Journal Press (trad. it.: Teoria e pratica della terapia della Gestalt: Vitalità e accrescimento nella personalità umana. Roma: Astrolabio, 1971; 1997).
  49. Philippson P. (2001). Self in Relation. Highland NY: Gestalt Journal Press.
  50. Polster E. (1987). Every Person’s Life Is Worth a Novel. New York: W.W. Norton & co. (trad. it.: Ogni vita merita un romanzo. Roma: Astrolabio, 1988).
  51. Polster E., Polster M. (1973). Gestalt Therapy Integrated. Contours of Theory and Practise. New York: Vintage (trad. it.: Psicoterapia della Gestalt integrata. Profili di teoria e pratica. Milano: Giuffré, 1986).
  52. Righetti P.L. (2005). Ogni bambino merita un romanzo. Lo sviluppo del sé dall’esperienza prenatale ai primi tre anni di vita. Roma: Carocci.
  53. Righetti P.L., Mione M. (2000). Per un concetto di sviluppo del sé prenatale in psicoterapia della Gestalt. Quaderni di Gestalt, 30/31: 120-126.
  54. Robine J.-M. (2003). Intentionality in Flesh and Blood: Toward a Psychopathology of Fore-Contacting. International Gestalt Journal, XXVI, 2: 85-110.
  55. Robine J.-M. (2004). S’apparaître à l’occasion d’un autre. Bordeaux: L’Exprimerie.
  56. Robine J.-M. (2015). Social Change Begins with Two. Siracusa: Istituto di Gestalt HCC Italy Publ. Co.
  57. Roubal J., Gecele M., Francesetti G. (2013). Gestalt Therapy Approach to Diagnosis. In: Francesetti G., Gecele M., Roubal J., eds., Gestalt Therapy in Clinical Practice. From Psychopathology to the Aesthetics of Contact. Milano: FrancoAngeli, 79-108 (trad. it.: La diagnosi in psicoterapia della Gestalt. In: Francesetti G., Gecele M., Roubal J., a cura di, La psicoterapia della Gestalt nella pratica clinica. Dalla psicopatologia all’estetica del contatto. Milano: FrancoAngeli, 2014, 87-118).
  58. Smith E.W.L. (1985). The Body in Psychotherapy. Jefferson, NC: McFarlan.
  59. Spagnuolo Lobb M. (2001a). La teoria del sé in psicoterapia della Gestalt. In: Spagnuolo Lobb M., a cura di, Psicoterapia della Gestalt. Ermeneutica e clinica. Milano: FrancoAngeli, 86-110.
  60. Spagnuolo Lobb M. (2001b). The Theory of Self in Gestalt Therapy. A Restatement of Some Aspects. Gestalt Review, 4: 276-288.
  61. Spagnuolo Lobb M. (2001c). From the Epistemology of Self to Clinical Specificity of Gestalt Therapy. In: Robine J.-M., ed., Contact and Relationship in a Field Perspective. Bordeaux: L’Exprimerie, 49-65.
  62. Spagnuolo Lobb M. (2002). A Gestalt Therapy Model for Addressing Psychosis. British Gestalt Journal, 11, 1: 5-15.
  63. Spagnuolo Lobb M. (2003). Therapeutic Meeting as Improvisational Co-creation. In: Spagnuolo Lobb M., Amendt-Lyon N., eds., Creative License. The Art of Gestalt Therapy. Wien, New York: Springer, 37-49 (trad. it.: L’incontro terapeutico come co-creazione improvvisata. In: Spagnuolo Lobb M., Amendt-Lyon N., a cura di, Il permesso di creare. L’arte della psicoterapia della Gestalt. Milano: FrancoAngeli, 2007, 65-81).
  64. Spagnuolo Lobb M. (2005a). Classical Gestalt Therapy Theory. In: Woldt A.L., Toman S.M., eds., Gestalt Therapy. History, Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 21-39.
  65. Spagnuolo Lobb M., ed. (2005b). Gestalt-thérapie avec des patients sévèrement perturbés. Bordeaux: L’Exprimerie (ed. or.: La Psicoterapia della Gestalt nelle strutture psichiatriche. Quaderni di Gestalt, XVII, 32/33: 34-48, 2001).
  66. Spagnuolo Lobb M. (2009). Co-creation and the Contact Boundary in the Therapeutic Situation. In: Ullman D., Wheeler G., eds., Cocreating the Field: Intention and Practise in the Age of Complexity. The Evolution of Gestalt Series, vol. 1, New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis for Gestalt Press, 101-134.
  67. Spagnuolo Lobb M. (2011). Il now-for-next in psicoterapia. La psicoterapia della Gestalt raccontata nella società post-moderna. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
  68. Spagnuolo Lobb M. (2012). Toward a Developmental Perspective in Gestalt Therapy Theory and Practice: The Polyphonic Development of Domains. Gestalt Review, 16, 3: 222-244 (trad. it.: Lo sviluppo polifonico dei domini. Verso una prospettiva evolutiva della psicoterapia della Gestalt. Quaderni di Gestalt, XXV, 2: 31-50., 10.3280/GEST2012-002003)DOI: 10.3280/GEST2012-002003)
  69. Spagnuolo Lobb M. (2013a). The Now-for-Next in Psychotherapy. Gestalt Therapy Recounted in Post-Modern Society. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
  70. Spagnuolo Lobb M. (2013b). Borderline. The Wound of the Boundary. In: Francesetti G., Gecele M., Roubal J., eds., Gestalt Therapy in Clinical Practice. From Psychopathology to the Aesthetics of Contact. Milano: FrancoAngeli, 617-650 (trad. it.: L’esperienza borderline: la ferita del confine. In: Francesetti G., Gecele M., Roubal J., a cura di, La psicoterapia della Gestalt nella pratica clinica. Dalla psicopatologia all’estetica del contatto. Milano: FrancoAngeli, 2014, 659-695).
  71. Spagnuolo Lobb M. (2013c). Goodbye to Daniel Stern (1934-2012): A Genius Who Confirmed Gestalt Therapy from the Outside. British Gestalt Journal, 22, 1: 5-11.
  72. Spagnuolo Lobb M. (2013d). Isomorfismo: un ponte concettuale tra psicoterapia della Gestalt, psicologia della Gestalt e neuroscienze. In: Cavaleri P.A., a cura di, Psicoterapia della Gestalt e neuroscienze. Dall’isomorfismo alla simulazione incarnata. Milano: FrancoAngeli, 82-108.
  73. Spagnuolo Lobb M. (2015). The Body as a “Vehicle” of Our Being in the World. Somatic Experience in Gestalt Therapy. British Gestalt Journal, 24, 2: 21-31.
  74. Spagnuolo Lobb M., Amendt-Lyon N., eds. (2003). Creative License. The Art of Gestalt Therapy. Wien, New York: Springer (trad. it.: Il permesso di creare. L’arte della psicoterapia della Gestalt. Milano: FrancoAngeli, 2007).
  75. Spagnuolo Lobb M., Rubino V. (2015). Le esperienze dissociative in psicoterapia della Gestalt. Quaderni di Gestalt, XXVIII, 1: 27-47., 10.3280/GEST2015-00100DOI: 10.3280/GEST2015-00100
  76. Staemmler F.-M. (2006). The Willingness To Be Uncertain: Preliminary Thoughts About Interpretation and Understanding in Gestalt Therapy. International Gestalt Journal, 29, 2: 9-40.
  77. Stern D.N. (2010). Forms of Vitality. Exploring Dynamic Experience in Psychology and the Arts. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  78. Stern D.N., Bruschweiler-Stern N., Harrison A., Lyons-Ruth K., Morgan A., Nahum J., Sander L., Tronick E. (1998). The Process of Therapeutic Change Involving Implicit Knowledge: Some Implications of Developmental Observations for Adult Psychotherapy. Infant Mental Health Journal, 3: 300-308., 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0355(199823)19:3%3C300::AID-IMHJ5%3E3.0.CO;2-DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0355(199823)19:3%3C300::AID-IMHJ5%3E3.0.CO;2-
  79. Stern D.N., Bruschweiler-Stern N., Harrison A., Lyons-Ruth K., Morgan A., Nahum J., Sander L., Tronick E. (2003). On the Other Side of the Moon. The Import of Implicit Knowledge for Gestalt Therapy. In: Spagnuolo Lobb M., Amendt-Lyon N., eds., Creative License. The Art of Gestalt Therapy. Wien, New York: Springer, 21-35 (trad. it.: L’altra faccia della luna: l’importanza della conoscenza implicita per la psicoterapia della Gestalt. In: Spagnuolo Lobb M., Amendt-Lyon N., a cura di, Il permesso di creare. L’arte della psicoterapia della Gestalt. Milano: FrancoAngeli, 2007, 45-64).
  80. Taylor M. (2014). Trauma Therapy and Clinical Practice: Neuroscience, Gestalt and the Body. Open University Press, UK: McGraw-Hill Education.
  81. Tobin S.A. (1983). Gestalt Therapy and the Self: Reply to Yontef. The Gestalt Journal, 6, 1: 71-90.
  82. Yontef G.M. (1983). Gestalttherapie als dialogische Methode. Integrative Therapie, 9/2, 3: 98-130.
  83. Yontef G.M. (1987). Assimilating Diagnostic and Psychoanalytic Perspectives into Gestalt Therapy. “Keynote address”. Gestalt Conference, May 1987. The Gestalt Journal, 1988, 11, 1: 5-32.
  84. Yontef G.M. (1993). Awareness, Dialogue and Process: Essay in Gestalt Therapy. Highland, NY: The Gestalt Journal Press Inc.
  85. Yontef G.M. (2005). Gestalt Therapy Theory of Change. In: Woldt A.L., Toman S.M., eds., Gestalt Therapy: History, Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 81-100.
  86. Wheeler G. (1998). Gestalt Reconsidered. A New Approach to Contact and Resistence. New York: Gardner Press Inc.
  87. Wheeler G. (2000). Beyond Individualism: Toward a New Understanding of Self, Relationship, and Experience. Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press.
  88. Wheeler G., McConville M. (2002). The Heart of Development. Gestalt Approaches to Working with Children, Adolescents and Their Worlds. Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press.
  89. Winnicott D.W. (1974). Playing and Reality. London, New York: Routledge (trad. it.: Gioco e realtà. Roma: Armando, 1999).

Margherita Spagnuolo Lobb, Self as Contact. Contact as Self. A Contribution for the Ground Experience in Gestalt Therapy Theory of Self in "QUADERNI DI GESTALT" 2/2015, pp. 25-56, DOI:10.3280/GEST2015-002003

   

FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content