Click here to download

Italian validation of the Il Self ‒ and Task ‒ Perception Questionnaire for adolescents in mathematics
Author/s:  Daniela Fadda, Laura Francesca Scalas 
Year:  2016 Issue: Language: Italian 
Pages:  19 Pg. 83-101 FullText PDF:  255 KB
DOI:  10.3280/PDS2016-003005
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 

Within the expectancy-value theory framework, the present study provides support for the Italian validation of the Il Self ‒ and Task ‒ Perception Questionnaire for adolescents (STPQ). This instrument, developed by Eccles and colleagues, measures expectancy, subjective task values and perceived difficulty in a specific academic domain. The STPQ consists of 19 items on a 6-point response scale; it shows adequate psychometric proprieties and the ability to predict subsequent performance and career decisions of students. In the present study, we examined motivation toward mathematics in a sample of 440 students (232 males and 208 females), attending the final year of high school. Confirmatory factor analyses were performed to provide support for the six first order factorial structure of the instrument (ability/expectancy, intrinsic/interest value, attainment value/importance, extrinsic/utility value, task difficulty, required effort), which resulted invariant over gender. According with previous international studies, the authors found also a second-order factorial structure, where five of the six first order factors are aggregated in two higher-order factors: subjective task value, and perceived task difficulty. Moreover, this study supported construct and predictive validity of the instrument. Finally, the STPQ could be considered a valid and reliable instrument to measure expectancy, value and task difficulty toward math for high school students.
Keywords: Expectancy-value, mathematics, questionnaire validation, confirmatory factor analysis

  1. Wigfield A. and Eccles J.S. (2000). Expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25: 68-81., DOI: 10.1006/ceps.1999.101
  2. Aiken L.R. (1970). Attitude towards mathematics. Review of Educational Research, 40: 551-596., DOI: 10.3102/0034654304000455
  3. Ajzen I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50: 179-211., DOI: 10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-
  4. Chen F.F. (2007). Sensitivity of goodness of fit indexes to lack of measurement. Structural Equation Modeling, 14: 464-504., DOI: 10.1080/1070551070130183
  5. Cheung G.W. and Rensvold R.B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 9: 233-255., DOI: 10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_
  6. Deci E.L. and Ryan R.M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum Press.
  7. Eccles J.S. (2009). Who am I and what am I going to do with my life? Personal and collective identities as motivators of action. Educational Psychologist, 44: 78-89., DOI: 10.1080/0046152090283236
  8. Eccles J.S., Adler T.F., Futterman R., Goff S.B., Kaczala C.M., Meece J.L. and Midgley C. (1983). Expectancies, values and academic behaviors. In: Spence J.T. (Ed.), Achievement and achievement motives. San Francisco, CA: Freeman, pp. 75-146.
  9. Eccles J.S., Adler T.F. and Meece J.L. (1984). Sex differences in achievement: A test of alternate theories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46: 26-43., DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.46.1.2
  10. Eccles J.S., O’Neill S.A. and Wigfield A. (2005). Ability self-perceptions and subjective task values in adolescents and children. In: Moore K.A. and Lippman L.H. (Eds.), What do Children need to flourish? Conceptualizing and measuring indicators of positive development. New York City, New York: Springer Science, pp. 237-249.
  11. Eccles J.S. and Wigfield A. (1995). In the mind of the actor: The structure of adolescents’ achievement values and expectancy-related beliefs. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21: 215-225., DOI: 10.1177/014616729521300
  12. Eccles J.S. and Wigfield A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 53: 109-132., DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.13515
  13. Eccles J.S., Wigfield A., Harold R. and Blumenfeld P.B. (1993). Age and gender differences in children’s self- and task perceptions during elementary school. Child Development, 64: 830-847., DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1993.tb02946.
  14. Eccles J.S., Wigfield A. and Schiefele U. (1998). Motivation to succeed. In: Damon W. and Eisenberg N. (Eds), Handbook of child psychology. New York: Wiley, 5th ed., Vol. III, pp. 1017-1095.
  15. Feather N.T. (1988). Values, valences, and course enrollment: Testing the role of personal values within an expectancy ‒ value framework. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80: 381-391., DOI: 10.1037/0022-0663.80.3.38
  16. Harter S. (1985). Competence as a dimension of self-evaluation: Toward a comprehensive model of self-worth. In: Leahy R.E. (Ed.), The development of the self. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, pp. 55-121.
  17. Hu L. and Bentler P.M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6: 1-55., DOI: 10.1080/1070551990954011
  18. Markus H. and Wurf E. (1987). The dynamic self-concept: a social psychological perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 38: 299-337., DOI: 10.1146/
  19. Marsh H.W. (1986). Verbal and math self-concepts: An internal/external frame of reference model. American Educational Research Journal, 23: 129-149., DOI: 10.3102/0002831202300112
  20. Marsh H.W. (1992). Self-Description Questionnaire III: A theoretical and empirical basis for the measurement of multiple dimensions of adolescent self-concept: A test manual and research monograph. Australia: Macarrhur, NSW.
  21. Marsh H.W., Abduljabbar A.S., Abu-Hilal M., Morin A.J.S., Abdelfattah F., Leung K.C. et al. (2013). Factorial, convergent, and discriminant validity of TIMSS math and science motivation measures: A comparison of Arab and Anglo-Saxon countries. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(1): 108-128., DOI: 10.1037/a0029907
  22. Meece J., Wigfield A. and Eccles J.S. (1990). Predictors of math anxiety and its influence on young adolescents’ course enrollment intentions and performance in mathematics. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82: 60-70., DOI: 10.1037/0022-0663.82.1.6
  23. Nagengast B., Marsh H.W., Scalas L.F., Xu M., Hau K.T. and Trautwein U. (2011). Who took the “x” out of expectancy-value theory? A psychological mystery, a substantive-methodological synergy, and a cross-national generalization. Psychological Science, 22: 1058-1066., DOI: 10.1177/095679761141554
  24. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development ‒ OECD (2007). PISA 2006 science competencies for tomorrow’s world. Paris, France: Author.
  25. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development ‒ OECD (2014). Education at a Glance 2014: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing.
  26. Perrone L. (1977). Metodi quantitativi della ricerca sociale. Milano: Feltrinelli.
  27. Renninger K.A., Hidi S. and Krapp A. (1992). The role of interest in learning and development. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  28. Roeser R.W., Eccles J.S., Yates B., Lord S.E., Harold R., Wigfield A. and Blumenfeld P. (1995). School adjustment and psychological well-being from childhood to early adolescence. New York: American Psychological Association.
  29. Scalas L.F., Marsh H.W., Morin A.J.S. and Nagengast B. (2014). Why is support for jamesian actual-ideal discrepancy model so elusive? A latent-variable approach. Personality and Individual Differences, 69: 62-68., DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.05.01
  30. Scalas L.F., Morin A.J.S., Marsh H.W. and Nagengast B. (2014). Importance models of the physical self: Improved methodology supports a normative-cultural importance model but not the individual importance model. European Journal of Social Psychology, 44: 154-174., DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.200
  31. Simpkins S.D., Davis-Kean P.E. and Eccles J.S. (2006). Math and science motivation: A longitudinal examination of the links between choices and beliefs. Developmental Psychology, 42: 70-83., DOI: 10.1037/0012-1649.42.1.7
  32. Vandenberg R.J. and Lance C.E. (2000). A review and synthesis of the measurement invariance literature: suggestions, practices, and recommendations for organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 3: 4-70., DOI: 10.1177/10944281003100

Daniela Fadda, Laura Francesca Scalas, Italian validation of the Il Self ‒ and Task ‒ Perception Questionnaire for adolescents in mathematics in "PSICOLOGIA DELLA SALUTE" 3/2016, pp. 83-101, DOI:10.3280/PDS2016-003005


FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content