Clicca qui per scaricare

Rassegna storica degli indirizzi quantitativi e qualitativi in psicologia
Titolo Rivista: RICERCHE DI PSICOLOGIA  
Autori/Curatori: Davide Cavagna, Carlo Cristini, Marcello Cesa-Bianchi 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2017 Fascicolo: Lingua: Italiano 
Numero pagine:  42 P. 25-66 Dimensione file:  327 KB
DOI:  10.3280/RIP2017-001002
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 


Il presente lavoro di carattere storico-epistemologico pone in evidenza come i diversi sistemi della psicologia, anche fortemente contrastanti tra loro, hanno permesso di indagare gli eventi mentali da vertici complementari, qualitativi e quantitativi, così da contribuire a definire e sviluppare una disciplina scientifica complessa e pluralista da un punto di vista epistemologico. Se si esamina come la qualità e la quantità dei comportamenti e processi mentali, individuali e gruppali, sia umani che animali, sia stata indagata da prospettive psicologiche alternative, e come le ricerche si siano diversificate nel corso del tempo sia da un punto di vista speculativo che applicativo, è possibile delineare un quadro sufficientemente ampio e articolato della complessità epistemologica della psicologia contemporanea quale disciplina scientifica unitaria, che illustri in maniera appropriata le tensioni e le criticità che tutt’ora la caratterizzano.


Keywords: Psicologia scientifica, unità della scienza, pluralismo epistemologico, qualità mentale, quantità.

  1. Abbagnano, N. (1961). Dizionario di filosofia. Torino: Utet.
  2. Ach, N. (1905). Über die Willenstätigkeit und das Denken. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht., DOI: 10.2307/2177587
  3. Agazzi, E. (1973). Epistemologia della psicologia. Agorà, I, 7-21.
  4. Agazzi, E. (1976). Criteri epistemologici fondamentali delle discipline psicologiche. In G. Siri (Ed.), Problemi epistemologici della psicologia. Milano: Vita e Pensiero, 3-35; 62-71; 110-114; 219-223.
  5. Alexander, F. (1950). Psychosomatic Medicine. New York: Norton.
  6. Allport, G. (1937). Personality: A psychological interpretation. New York: Holt.
  7. Ames, A. (1952). The Ames Demonstrations in Perception. New York: Hafner Publishing.
  8. Angell, J.R. (1907). The province of functional psychology. Psychological Review, 14, 61-91.
  9. Angyal, A. (1941). Foundations for a Science of Personality. New York: Commonwealth Fund.
  10. Antonietti, A. (1996). Il luogo della mente. Un’introduzione alla psicologia attraverso il mind-body problem. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
  11. Asch, S.E. (1952). Social Psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  12. Assoun, P.-L. (1981). Introduction à l’épistémologie freudienne. Paris: Payot.
  13. Baldwin, J.M. (1895). Mental Development in the Child and the Race: Methods and processes. New York: Macmillan.
  14. Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  15. Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  16. Baron-Cohen, S. (1995). Mindblindness: An essay on autism and theory of mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Bradford Books.
  17. Bartlett, F.C. (1932). Remembering. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  18. Bartlett, F.C. (1958). Thinking. London: Allen and Unwin.
  19. Bateson, G. (1972). Steps to an Ecology of Mind: Collected essays in anthropology, psychiatry, evolution, and epistemology. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  20. Bateson, G. (1979). Mind and Nature: A Necessary Unity (Advances in systems theory, complexity, and the human sciences). New York: Hampton Press.
  21. Bechterew, W.M. (1910). Objektive Psychologie. Leipzig, Berlin: Teubner, 1913.
  22. Beebe, B., & Lachmann, F.R. (2002). Infant Research and Adult Treatment. Co-constructing Interactions. Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press., DOI: 10.4324/9780203767498
  23. Berlucchi, C. (1944). Malati sintonici e malati autisti, caratteri aperti e caratteri chiusi, temperamenti ciclotimici e temperamenti schizotimici, tipi estrovertiti e tipi introvertiti, soggetti integrati e soggetti sinestesici nella moderna psichiatria e caratterologia. Archivio di Psicologia, Neurologia, Psichiatria e Psicoterapia, 161-214.
  24. Binet, A., & Simon, Th. (1905). Méthodes nouvelles pour la diagnostic du niveau intellectuel des anormaux. L’Année Psychologique, 11, 191-244.
  25. Binet, A., & Simon, Th. (1908). Le développement de l’intelligence chez l’enfant. L’Année Psychologique, 14, 1-94.
  26. Binet, A., & Simon, Th. (1911). La mesure du développement de l’intelligence chez les jeunes enfants. Bulletin de la Société Libre pour l’Etude de l’Enfant, 11, 187-256.
  27. Biswanger, L. (1947). Zur phänomenologischen Anthropologie. Bern: Fräncke.
  28. Bocchi, G., & Ceruti, M. (Eds) (1985). La sfida della complessità. Milano: Feltrinelli; Milano: Bruno Mondadori, 2007.
  29. Bowlby, J. (1951). Maternal Care and Mental Health. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  30. Bowlby, J. (1968/1980). Attachment and Loss, 3 voll. London: Hogarth Press.
  31. Brentano, F. (1874). Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkt, 3 Bände. Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag, 1911.
  32. Bridgman, P.W. (1927). The Logic of Modern Physics. New York: MacMillan.
  33. Bridgman, P.W. (1959). The Way Things Are. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  34. Broadbent, D.E. (1958). Perception and Communication. Oxford: Pergamon Press., DOI: 10.1037/10037-000
  35. Broca, P. (1861-69). Écrits sur l’aphasie. Paris: L’Harmattan, 2004.
  36. Bruner, J.S., & Brown, R.W. (1956). A Study of Thinking. New York: Wiley.
  37. Bruner, J.S., & Goodman, C.C. (1947). Value and need as organizing factors in perception. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 42, 33-44.
  38. Brunswick, E. (1939). The conceptual focus of some psychological systems. Journal of Unified Science (Erkenntnis), 8, 36-49.
  39. Brunswick, E. (1943). Organismic achievement and environmental probability. Psychological Review, 50, 255-272.
  40. Bühler, K. (1922). Die geistige Entwicklung des Kindes. Jena: Gustav Fischer., DOI: 10.1097/00005053-192204000-00081
  41. Bühler, K. (1934). Sprachtheorie. Die Darstellungsfunktion der Sprache. Jena: Gustav Fischer.
  42. Burt, C. (1940). The Factors of the Mind: An introduction to factor analysis in psychology. London: University of London Press.
  43. Carr, H. (1925). Psychology. A study of mental activity. New York: Longmans, Green and Co., DOI: 10.1037/13432-000
  44. Castiglioni, M. (1995). L’alternativa del costruzionismo sociale. In A. Greco (Ed.), Oltre il cognitivismo. Nuove prospettive per la psicologia. Milano: FrancoAngeli, 85-116.
  45. Castiglioni, M. (2001). Epistemologia e psicologia. Milano: ISU.
  46. Castiglioni, M., & Corradini, A. (2011). Modelli epistemologici in psicologia. Dalla psicoanalisi al costruzionismo. Roma: Carocci.
  47. Cattell, J. McK. (1890). Mental tests and measurements. Mind, 15, 373-381.
  48. Cattell, R.B. (1950). Personality: A systematic, theoretical, and factual study. New York: McGraw Hill., DOI: 10.1037/10773-000
  49. Cesa-Bianchi, M. (1951). L’applicazione dei reattivi mentali nello studio dell’invecchiamento. Archivio di Psicologia Neurologia e Psichiatria, XII, IV-V, 390-393.
  50. Cesa-Bianchi, M. (1977). Psicologia della senescenza. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
  51. Cesa-Bianchi, M. (1979). Perché la psicologia? Brescia: La Scuola.
  52. Cesa-Bianchi, M. (1998). Giovani per sempre? L’arte di invecchiare. Bari-Roma: Laterza.
  53. Charmaz, K. (2014). Constructing Grounded Theory. London: Sage, 2nd ed.
  54. Chomsky, N. (1957). Syntactic Structures. The Hague/Paris: Mouton.
  55. Cimino, G., Degni, S., & Ferreri, A.M. (Eds) (2012). I manifesti della psicologia americana tra Ottocento e Novecento. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
  56. Civita, A. (2003). Filosofia della psicologia. In Vassallo, N. (Ed.). Filosofie della scienza. Torino: Einaudi.
  57. Clarke, A.E. (2005). Situational Analysis. Grounded theory after postmodern turn. London: Sage.
  58. Coghill, G.E. (1929). Anatomy and the Problem of Behavior. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  59. Cooper, H. (2012). Handbook of Research Methods in Psychology, 3 voll. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
  60. Costa, P.T.Jr., & McCrae, R.R. (1985). The NEO Personality Inventory manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
  61. Damasio, A. (1994). Descartes’ Error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: Putnam.
  62. Damasio, A. (1999). The Feeling of What Happens: Body and emotion in the making of consciousness. New York: Harcourt Brace.
  63. Deppermann, A. (1999). Gespräche analysieren. Eine Einführung in konversations- analytische Methoden. Opladen: Leske und Budrich., DOI: 10.1007/978-3-322-91359-3
  64. Dewey, J. (1896). The reflex arc concept in psychology. Psychological Review, 3, 357-370.
  65. Dollard, J., & Miller N.E (1950). Personality and Psychotherapy: An analysis in terms of learning, thinking, and culture. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  66. Donders, F.C. (1869). Over de snelheid van psychische processen [On the speed of mental processes]. Vertaald door W.G. Koster (1969). Attention and Performance, 2, 412-431., DOI: 10.1016/0001-6918(69)90065-1
  67. Edelman, G. (1987). Neural Darwinism: The theory of neuronal group selection. New York: Basic Books.
  68. Edelman, G. (1990). The Remembered Present: A biological theory of consciousness. New York: Basic Books.
  69. Egidi, R. (1992). La svolta relativistica nell’epistemologia contemporanea. Milano: FrancoAngeli, 2a ed.
  70. Ellis, C. (2004). The Ethnographic I: A methodological novel about autoethnography. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.
  71. Emde, R.E., Harmon R-J., & Gaensbauer, T.J. (1976). Emotional Expression in Infancy: A biobehavioral study. Madison, CT: International Universities Press.
  72. Engel, G.L. (1977). The need for a new medical model: a challenge for biomedicine. Science, 196/4286, 129-136.
  73. Eysenck, H.J. (1947). Dimensions of Personality. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  74. Eysenck, H.J. (1990). Biological dimensions of personality. In L.A. Pervin (Ed.), Handbook of Personality: Theory and research. New York: Guilford, 244-276.
  75. Fabozzi, P., & Ortu, F. (1996). Al di là della metapsicologia. Roma: Il Pensiero Scientifico.
  76. Fechner, G.T. (1851). Zend-Avesta oder über die Dinge des Himmels und des Jenseits. Vom Standpunkt der Naturbetrachtung, 3 Bände, Leipzig 1851.
  77. Fechner, G.T. (1860). Elemente der Psychophysik. Bd. I & II. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel.
  78. Flavell, J.H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring. A new area of cognitive-development inquiry. American Psychologist, 34(10), 906-911.
  79. Fodor, J.A. (1983). Modularity of Mind: An essay on faculty psychology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  80. Fonagy, P., Gergely, G., Jurist, E., & Target, M. (2002). Affect Regulation, Mentalization, and the Development of the Self. New York: Other Press.
  81. Frenkel-Brunswick, E. (1949). Intolerance of ambiguity as an emotional and perceptual personality variable. Journal of Personality, 18, 108-143.
  82. Freud, S. (1891), Zur Auffassung der Aphasien. Eine kritische Studie. Leipzig: Franz Deuticke.
  83. Freud, S. (1895). Entwurf einer Psychologie. In Aus den Anfängen der Psychoanalyse 1887-1902. Frankfurt am Mein: S. Fischer Verlag 1975.
  84. Freud, S. (1900). Die Traumdeutung. Leipzig, Wien: Franz Deuticke.
  85. Freud, S. (1938). Abriß der Psychoanalyse. Internationale Zeitschrift für Psychoanalyse und Imago, XXV, 1, 1940, 7-67.
  86. Frith, U., & Frith, C.D. (2003). Development and neurophysiology of mentalising. Philosophical Transactions, Series B, Special issue on Mechanisms of social interaction, 358(1431), 459-473.
  87. Fromm, E. (1955). The Sane Society. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1956.
  88. Funari, E. (1975). Il giovane Freud. Sigmund Freud e la scuola di Vienna. Milano: Loescher.
  89. Gallese, V. (2005). “Being like me”: Self-other identity, mirror neurons and empathy. In S. Hurley & N. Chater (Eds.), Perspectives on Imitation: From cognitive neuroscience to social science (Vol. 1, pp. 101–118). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  90. Galton, F. (1883). Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development. New York: Macmillan., DOI: 10.1037/14178-000
  91. Goldstein, K. (1939). The Organism: A holistic approach to biology derived from pathological data in man. Salt Lake City: American Book Publishing., DOI: 10.1037/10021-000
  92. Graumann, C.F. (1969). Einführung in die Psychologie, Band 1. Frankfurt am Main: Akademische Verlaggesellschaft.
  93. Greco, A. (1995), Il disagio del cognitivismo: un simposio immaginario. In A. Greco (Ed.). Oltre il cognitivismo. Nuove prospettive per la psicologia (pp. 26-84). Milano: FrancoAngeli.
  94. Hall, C.S., & Lindzey, G. (1957). Theories of Personality. New York: Wiley., DOI: 10.1037/10910-000
  95. Hall, G.S. (1907). Adolescence: Its psychology and its relations to physiology, anthropology, sociology, sex, crime, religion and education, 2 voll. New York: Appleton.
  96. Hall, G.S. (1921). Aspects of Child Life and Education. New York: Appleton.
  97. Harlow, H.F., & Harlow, M.K. (1965). The affectional systems. In A.M. Schrier, H.F. Harlow, & F. Stollnitz (Eds.), Behavior of Non-Human Primates. New York: Academic Press.
  98. Hartmann, H. (1939). Ego Psychology and the Problem of Adaptation. New York: International Universities Press, 1958., DOI: 10.1037/13180-000
  99. Hartmann, H. (1964). Essays on Ego Psychology. New York: International Universities Press.
  100. Hebb, D.O. (1949). The Organization of Behavior: A neuropsychological theory. New York: Wiley.
  101. Helmholtz, H. von (1856). Handbuch der physiologischen Optik. Leipzig: Voss.
  102. Helson, H. (1964). Adaptation-level Theory. New York: Harper & Row.
  103. Hering, K.E.K. (1874). Zur Lehre vom Lichtsinne. Sechs Mittheilungen an die Kaiserl. Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien. Zweiter, unveränderter Abdruck. Wien: Gerold, 1878.
  104. Hinde, R.A. (1972). Non-Verbal Communication. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  105. Holzkamp, K. (1974). Psicologia critica. Milano: Mazzotta.
  106. Hook, S. (Ed.) (1959). Psychoanalysis, Scientific Method, and Philosophy: A Symposium. New York: New York University Press.
  107. Hull, C.L. (1929). A functional interpretation of the conditioned reflex. Psychological Review, 36, 498-511.
  108. Hull, C. L. (1943). Principles of Behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
  109. Ittelson, W.H. (1962). Perception and transactional psychology. In S. Koch (Ed.) Psychology: A study of a science, vol 4, 660-704. New York: McGraw-Hill., DOI: 10.1037/10541-014
  110. Ittelson, W. H., & Cantril, H. (1954). Perception: A transactional approach. New York: Doubleday., DOI: 10.1037/13202-000
  111. Jaensch, E.R. (1925). Die Eidetik und die typologische Forschungsmethode. Leipzig: Quelle & Meyer.
  112. James, W. (1890). The Principles of Psychology, 2 voll. New York: Henry Holt and Co., DOI: 10.1037/11059-00
  113. James, W., & Lange, C.G. (1922). The Emotions. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins Co., DOI: 10.1037/10735-000
  114. Jensen, A.R. (1969). Race and intelligence: The differences are real. Psychology Today, 3, 4-6.
  115. Johnson-Laird, P.N. (1983). Mental Models: Toward a cognitive science of language, inference and consciousness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  116. Johnson-Laird, P.N., & Wason, P.C. (1972). Psychology of Reasoning: Structure and content. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  117. Kandel, E.R. (2007). In Search of Memory. The Emergence of a New Science of Mind. New York: Norton & Co.
  118. Kandel, E.R., Schwartz, J.H., & Jessell, T.M. (1981). Principles of Neural Science. New York: McGraw-Hill, 5th ed. 2012.
  119. Kantor, J.R. (1959). Interbehavioral Psychology: A sample of scientific system construction (Rev. ed.). Granville, OH: Principia Press., DOI: 10.1037/13165-000
  120. Katz, D. (1911/1930). Der Aufbau der Farben. Leipzig: J.A. Barth.
  121. Kelly, G. (1955). The Psychology of Personal Constructs, 2 voll. New York: Norton & Co.
  122. Klein, M. (1921). Eine Kinderentwicklung. Imago, 251-309.
  123. Klein, M. (1952). Some theoretical conclusions regarding the emotional life of the infant. In: Envy and Gratitude and Other Works 1946-1963 (pp. 61-93). London: Hogarth Press, 1975.
  124. Koehler, W. (1933). Psychologische Probleme. Berlin: Springer., DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-48560-2
  125. Koffka, K. (1935). Principles of Gestalt Psychology. New York: Harcourt; Brace & World.
  126. Kretschmer, E. (1925). Körperbau und Charakter. Berlin: Julius Springer., DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-30127-2
  127. Külpe, O. (1912). Vorlesungen über Psychologie. Über die moderne Psychologie des Denkens. Leipzig: Hirzel.
  128. Lacan, J. (1966). Écrits, Paris: Éditions du Seuil.
  129. Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1999), Philosophy in the Flesh: The embodied mind and its challenge to Western thought. New York: Basic Books.
  130. Lashley, K.S. (1930). Basic neural mechanisms in behavior. Psychological Review, 37, 1-24.
  131. Lecky, P. (1945). Self-consistency: A theory of personality. New York: Island Press. 
  132. LeDoux, J. (1998). The Emotional Brain. The mysterious underpinnings of emotional life. New York: Simon & Schuster.
  133. Lewin, K. (1935). A Dynamic Theory of Personality. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  134. Lewin, K. (1936). Principles of Topological Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill., DOI: 10.1037/10019-000
  135. Lichtenberg, J.D., Lachmann, F.M., & Fosshage, J.L. (2011). Psychoanalysis and Motivational Systems: A new look. New York: Routledge., DOI: 10.4324/9780203844748
  136. Lieberman, M.D. (2007). Social cognitive neuroscience: A review of core processes. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 259-89.
  137. Lindsay, P. H., & Norman, D. A. (1972). Human Information Processing. New York: Academic Press.
  138. Lorch, E.R. (1976). La qualità. Atti del Seminario tenuto a Venezia nel 1974. Bologna: il Mulino.
  139. Lorenz, K. (1932). Betrachtungen über das Erkennen der arteigenen Triebhandlungen der Vögel. Journal für Ornithologie, 80(1), 50-98.
  140. Luccio, R. (2013). Storia della psicologia. Un’introduzione. Roma-Bari: Laterza.
  141. Lundin, R.W. (1996), Theories and Systems of Psychology. Lexington Mass: DC Heat & Co., 5th ed.
  142. Lurija, A.R. (1962). Higher Cortical Functions in Man. Moscow University Press., DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4684-7741-2
  143. Mancia, M. (Ed.) (2006). Psicoanalisi e neuroscienze. Milano: Springer-Verlag Italia., DOI: 10.1007/978-88-470-0659-1
  144. Marhaba, S. (1981). Antinomie epistemologiche nella psicologia contemporanea. Firenze: Giunti Barbera.
  145. Maslow, A.H. (1943). Theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370-396.
  146. McClelland, J.L., Rumelhart, D.E., & the PDP Research Group (1986), Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the microstructure of cognition. Vol. 2: Psychological and Biological Models. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
  147. McCrae, R.R., & Costa, P.T.Jr. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 81-90., DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.52.1.81
  148. McDougall, W. (1908). An Introduction to Social Psychology (2nd ed.). London: Methuen & Co, 1909.
  149. McDougall, W. (1932). The Energies of Men: A study of the fundamentals of dynamic psychology. London: Methuen & Co., DOI: 10.1037/13634-000
  150. Merleau-Ponty, M. (1945). Phénomenologie de la perception. Paris: Gallimard.
  151. Meyer, A. (1948). The Commonsense Psychiatry. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  152. Miller, G.A., Galanter, E., & Pribram. K.H. (1960). Plans and the Structure of Behavior. New York: Holt & Co.
  153. Miller, N.E., & Dollard, J. (1941). Social Learning and Imitation. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press., DOI: 10.1037/10039-000
  154. Mowrer, O.H. (1947). On the dual nature of learning: A re-interpretation of “conditioning” and “problem-solving”. Harvard Educational Review, 17, 102-148.
  155. Murphy, G. (1953). Psychology and psychical research. Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 50, 26-49.
  156. Murray, H.D. (1938). Explorations In Personality. New York: Oxford University Press.
  157. Musatti, C. (1964). Condizioni dell’esperienza e fondazione della psicologia. Firenze: Giunti.
  158. Neisser, U. (1967). Cognitive Psychology. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
  159. Neisser, U. (1976). Cognition and Reality. Principles and implications of cognitive psychology. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman & Co.
  160. Norman, W.T. (1963). Toward an adequate taxonomy of personality attributes: Replicated factor structure in peer nomination personality ratings. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66(6), 574-583.
  161. Panksepp, J. (1998). Affective Neuroscience: The foundations of human and animal emotions. New York: Oxford University Press.
  162. Pavlov, I.P. (1927). Conditioned Reflexes: An investigation of the physiological activity of the cerebral cortex. London: Oxford University Press.
  163. Pearson, K. (1904). On the Theory of Contingency and its Relation to Association and Normal Correlation. London: Dulau & Co.
  164. Pearson, K. (1905). On the General Theory of Skew Correlation and Non-linear Regression. London: Dulau & Co.
  165. Penfield, W., & Erickson, T.C. (1941). Epilepsy and Cerebral Localization. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.
  166. Pepper, S. (1942). World Hypotheses: Prolegomena to systematic philosophy and a complete survey of metaphysics. Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: University of California Press.
  167. Piaget, J. (1923). Le langage et la pensée chez l’enfant. Paris: Delachaux et Niestlé.
  168. Piaget, J. (1926). La représentation du monde chez l’enfant. Paris: PUF.
  169. Piaget, J. (1950). Introduction à l’épistémologie génétique, I-III. Paris: PUF.
  170. Pissacroia, M. (1985). Delle psicoanalisi possibili: Bion, Lacan, Matte Blanco. Roma: Borla.
  171. Premack, D. (1963). Rate differential reinforcement in monkey manipulation. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 6, 81-90.
  172. Premack, D., & Woodruff, G. (1978). Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 4, 515-526.
  173. Prigogine, I., & Stengers, I. (1986). La nouvelle alliance. Paris: Gallimard.
  174. Putnam, H. (1961). Brains and behavior. In: Mathematics, Matter and Method: Philosophical Papers, Vol. 1. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  175. Ramachandran, V.S. (2002). Encyclopedia of the Human Brain. Cambridge, MA: Academic Press.
  176. Rapaport, D. (1960). The Structure of Psychoanalytic Theory: A systematic attempt. Madison, CT: International Universities Press.
  177. Rizzolatti, G., & Sinigaglia, C. (2006). So quel che fai. Il cervello che agisce e i neuroni specchio. Milano: Raffaello Cortina.
  178. Rogers, C. (1959). A theory of therapy, personality and interpersonal relationships as developed in the client-centered framework. In S. Koch (Ed.), Psychology: A study of a science. Vol. 3: Formulations of the person and the social context (pp. 184-256). New York: McGraw Hill.
  179. Rosenzweig, M.R., Bennett, E.L., & Diamond, M.C. (1972). Brain changes in response to experience. Scientific American, 226(21), 22-29.
  180. Rumelhart, D.E., McClelland, J.L., & the PDP Research Group (1986), Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the microstructure of cognition. Vol. 1: Foundations. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  181. Ruppel, P.S., & Mey, G. (2015). Grounded theory methodology: Narrativity revisited. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 49(2), 174-186.
  182. Sander, L. (2004). Living Systems, Evolving Consciousness, and the Emerging Person: A selection of papers from the life work of Louis Sander (Eds G. Amadei and I. Bianchi). Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press., DOI: 10.4324/9780203837580
  183. Schore, A. (1994). Affect Regulation and the Origin of the Self. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  184. Searle, J. (1984). Minds, Brains and Science: The 1984 Reith Lectures. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  185. Sears, R.R. (1943). Survey of Objective Studies of Psychoanalytic Concepts. New York: Social Science Research Council., DOI: 10.1037/11390-000
  186. Selye, H.H.B. (1956). The Stress of Life. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  187. Selz, O. (1922). Zur Psychologie der produktiven Denkens und des Irrtums. Bonn: Cohen.
  188. Sforzini, P. (1970). La psicologia dalle origini al primo Novecento. Milano: FrancoAngeli.
  189. Shannon, C.E., & Weaver, W. (1949). A mathematical theory of communication. Bell System Technical Journal, 27, 379-423, 623-656.
  190. Sheldon, W., & Stevens, S.S. (1942). Varieties of Human Temperament: A psychology of constitutional differences. New York: Harper & Row.
  191. Skinner, B.F (1938). The Behavior Of Organisms: An experimental analysis. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
  192. Skinner, B.F. (1953). Science and Human Behavior. New York: Free Press.
  193. Smith, R. (1997). The Human Sciences. New York: Harper & Collins.
  194. Solms, M., & Turnbull, O. (2002). The Brain and the Inner World. An introduction to the neuroscience of subjective experience. London & New York: Karnac Books.
  195. Sontag, L.W. (1944). War and the fetal-maternal relationship. Marriage and Family Living, 6, 3-5., DOI: 10.2307/346811
  196. Sontag, L.W., & Richards, T.W. (1938). Studies in fetal behavior: I. Fetal heart rate as abehavioral indicator. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 3(4 Serial No. 17), 1-67., DOI: 10.2307/1165470
  197. Spearman, C. (1904), General intelligence objectively determinated. The American Journal of Psychology, 15/2, 201-292., DOI: 10.2307/1412107
  198. Spencer, H. (1872-73). Principles of Psychology. New York: Appleton & Co., DOI: 10.1037/12279-000
  199. Spitz, R.A. (1945). Hospitalism: An inquiry into the genesis of psychiatric conditions in early childhood. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 1, 53-74.
  200. Spitz, R.A. (1946). Anaclitic depression: An inquiry into the genesis of a psychiatric condition in early childhood. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 2, 313-342.
  201. Stern, D. (1985). The Interpersonal World of the Infant: A view from psychoanalysis and developmental psychology. New York: Basic Books.
  202. Stern, W. (1911). Die differentielle Psychologie in ihren methodischen Grundlagen. Leipzig: Barth.
  203. Stevens, S.S. (1951). Handbook of Experimental Psychology. New York: John Wiley& Sons.
  204. Stolorow, R.D., & Atwood, G.E. (1992). Contexts of Being. Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press., DOI: 10.4324/9781315803418
  205. Sullivan, H.S. (1953). The Interpersonal Theory of Psychiatry. New York: Norton & Co.
  206. Tanner, W.P., & Swets, J.A. (1954). A decision-making theory of visual detection. Psychological Review, 61, 401-409.
  207. Terman, L.M. (1916), The uses of intelligence tests. In: The Measurement of Intelligence (chapter 1). Boston: Houghton Mifflin., DOI: 10.1037/10014-001
  208. Thom, R. (1972). Stabilité structurelle et morphogénèse. Reading, MA: W.A. Benjamin.
  209. Thom, R. (1980). Qualità/quantità. In Enciclopedia Einaudi, Torino: Einaudi, vol, 11, 460-476.
  210. Thorndike, E.L. (1898). Animal intelligence. An experimental study of the associative processes in animals. The Psychological Review, Monograph Supplements 2/4.
  211. Thorndike, E.L. (1905). The Elements of Psychology. New York: Seiler., DOI: 10.1037/10881-000
  212. Thurstone, L.L. (1928). Attitudes can be measured. American Journal of Sociology, 33, 529-554., DOI: 10.1086/214483
  213. Tinbergen, N. (1951). The Study of Instinct. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  214. Titchener, E.B. (1898). The postulates of a structural psychology. Philosophical Review, 7, 449-465., DOI: 10.2307/2177110
  215. Titchener, E.B. (1901-05). Experimental Psychology, 4 voll. New York: MacMillan., DOI: 10.1037/10766-000
  216. Tolman, E.C. (1932). Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
  217. Tolman, E.C. (1948). Cognitive maps in rats and men. The Psychological Review, 55(4), 189-208.
  218. Toolema, A. (2010), Quantitative methods in psychology: Inevitable and useless. Frontiers in Psychology, 1, 29.
  219. Tronick, E. (2007). The Neurobehavioral and Social-emotional Development of Infants and Children. New York: Norton & Co.
  220. Varela, F.J., Thompson, E., & Rosch, E. (1991). The Embodied Mind. Cognitive Science and Human Experience. Cambridge: MIT Press.
  221. Von Bertalanffy, L. (1968). General System Theory. Development, Applications. New York: George Braziller.
  222. Von Neumann, J., & Morgenstern, O. (1953). Theory of Games and Economic Behavior. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  223. Vygotsky, L.S. (1926). Educational Psychology. Introduction by V.V. Davydov. Boca Raton: St. Lucie Press, 1997.
  224. Vygotskij, L.S. (1934). Thought and Language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1962., DOI: 10.1037/11193-000
  225. Watson, J.B. (1913). Psychology as the behaviorist views it. Psychological Review, 20, 158-177.
  226. Watson, J.B. (1930). Behaviorism (revised edition). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  227. Weber, E.H. (1851). Die Lehre  vom Tastsinn und Gemeingefühl – auf Versuche gegründet. Braunschweig: Verlag Friedrich  Vieweg und Sohn.
  228. Weber, E.H. (1935). Über den Tastsinn. Archiv für Anatomie, Physiologie und wissenschaftliche Medicin, 152-160
  229. Werner, H., & Wapner, S. (1952). Experiments on sensory-tonic field theory of perception. V. Effect of body status on the kinesthetic perception of verticality. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 44(2), 126-31.
  230. Wernicke, C. (1874). Der aphasische Symptomenkomplex. Eine psychologische Studie auf anatomischer Basis. Breslau: M. Cohn & Weigert.
  231. Wertheimer, M. (1912). Experimentelle Studien über das Sehen von Bewegung. In: Zeitschrift für Psychologie, Band 61, 161-265.
  232. Wertheimer, M. (1922-23). Untersuchungen zur Lehre von der Gestalt. Psychologische Forschung, Band 1, 47-58; Band 4, 301-350.
  233. Wertheimer, M. (1945). Productive Thinking. New York: Harper.
  234. Wiener, N. (1948). Cybernetics, or control and communication in the animal and the machine. Cambridge: MIT Press., DOI: 10.1037/13140-000
  235. Witkin, H.A., Lewis, H. B., Hertzman, M., et al. (1954). Personality through Perception. New York: Harper & Bro.
  236. Woodworth, R.S. (1928). Dynamic Psychology. New York: Arno Press, 2nd ed.
  237. Wundt, W. (1873-74), Grundzüge der physiologischen Psychologie. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann.
  238. Wundt, W. (1896). Grundriss der Psychologie. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann.
  239. Wundt, W. (1900-20). Völkerpsychologie. Eine Untersuchung der Entwicklungs-gesetze von Sprache, Mythos und Sitte. 10 Bände. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann.

Davide Cavagna, Carlo Cristini, Marcello Cesa-Bianchi, in "RICERCHE DI PSICOLOGIA " 1/2017, pp. 25-66, DOI:10.3280/RIP2017-001002

   

FrancoAngeli è membro della Publishers International Linking Association associazione indipendente e no profit per facilitare l'accesso degli studiosi ai contenuti digitali nelle pubblicazioni professionali e scientifiche