Clicca qui per scaricare

Il comportamento nomico degli animali non-umani. Verso un’etologia della normatività
Titolo Rivista: SOCIOLOGIA DEL DIRITTO  
Autori/Curatori: Giuseppe Lorini 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2017 Fascicolo: Lingua: Italiano 
Numero pagine:  29 P. 77-105 Dimensione file:  383 KB
DOI:  10.3280/SD2017-003004
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 




Man is not only a social and teleological animal: he is also a nomic animal that can act following rules. Starting from this new image of man, the author asks whether there are also non-human animals with this nomic capacity. Generally, the answer to this question is negative, but the author provides four affirmative answers deriving from the ethological, philosophical and legal investigation of normativity (C. Goretti, R. Sacco, F.B.M. de Waal, K. Andrews) that may pave the way for a new field of research: ethology of normativity.
Keywords: Normativity - Legal ethology - Animal norms - Nomic animal - Nomic capacity - Ethology of normativity

  1. Aguilera, Mariela, 2010. Animales sin lenguaje en el espacio de los conceptos. Teorema: Revista Internacional de Filosofía, 29(2): 25-38.
  2. Andrews, Kristin, 2009. Understanding Norms without a Theory of Mind. Inquiry, 52(5): 433-448.
  3. —, 2014. Naïve normativity. In http://philosphyofbrains.com/2014/09/30/naive-normativity.aspx (visitato il 20 novembre 2017).
  4. —, 2015. The Folk Psychological Spiral: Explanation, Regulation, and Language. The Southern Journal of Philosophy, 53 [Spindel Supplement: Alternative Models of the Mind]: 50-67.
  5. —, 2017. Pluralistic Folk Psychology in Humans and Other Apes. In Julian Kiverstein (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of the Social Mind. Abingdon/New York: Routledge.
  6. Aureli, Filippo, Roberto Cozzolino, Carla Cordischi, & Stefano Scucchi, 1992. Kinoriented Redirection among Japanese Macaques: an Expression of a Revenge System? Animal Behaviour, 44(2): 283-291.
  7. Barrett-Lennard, Godfrey Lance, 2000. Population Structure and Mating Patterns of Killer Whales (Orcinus Orca) as Revealed by DNA Analysis. Tesi di dottorato. University of British Columbia.
  8. Bermúdez, José Luis, 2003a. Ascribing Thoughts to Non-linguistic Creatures. Facta Philosophica, 5: 313–334.
  9. —, 2003b. Thinking Without Words. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  10. —, 2007. Thinking Without Words: An Overview for Animal Ethics, Journal of Ethics, 11: 319-335.
  11. Bobbio, Norberto, 1958. Teoria della norma giuridica. Torino: Giappichelli.
  12. Boesch, Christophe, 2002. Cooperative Hunting Roles among Taï Chimpanzees. Human Nature, 13: 27-46.
  13. Böll, Heinrich, [1957]1989. Irisches Tagebuch. Köln: Kiepenheuer & Witsch. Traduzione italiana Diario d’Irlanda. Milano: Arnoldo Mondadori.
  14. Brosnan, Sarah F., 2006. Nonhuman Species’ Reactions to Inequity and Their Implications for Fairness. Social Justice Research, 19: 153-185.
  15. Caterina, Raffaele, 2004. Comparative Law and the Cognitive Revolution. Tulane Law Review, 78: 1501-1547.
  16. Churchland, Patricia S., 2011. Braintrust: What Neuroscience Tells Us about Morality. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  17. Conte, Amedeo Giovanni, 2000. Nomotropismo: agire in funzione di regole. Sociologia del diritto, 27(1): 1-27.
  18. Damasio, Antonio R., 1994. Decartes’ Error. Emotion, Reason, and Human Brain. New York: Avon Books.
  19. Danón, Laura, 2011. Normatividad doxástica en animales no humanos. Analítica, 5(5): 9-28.
  20. Deidda, Michela, 2014. Etologia della vendetta. Tesi di laurea. Università degli Studi di Cagliari.
  21. de Waal, Frans B.M., 1982. Chimpanzee Politics. Power and Sex among Apes. London: Cape.
  22. —, 1991. The Chimpanzee’s Sense of Social Regularity and Its Relation to the Human Sense of Justice. American Behavioral Scientist, 34: 335-349.
  23. —, [1996]2001. Good Natured: The Origins of Right and Wrong in Humans and the Other Animals. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Traduzione italiana Naturalmente buoni. Il bene e il male nell’uomo e in altri primati. Milano: Garzanti.
  24. —, [2006]2008. Primates and Philosophers: How Morality Evolved. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Traduzione italiana Filosofi e primati. Evoluzione e moralità. Milano: Garzanti.
  25. —, 2014. Natural Normativity: The ‘Is’ and ‘Ought’ of Animal Behavior. Behaviour, 151: 185-204.
  26. —, & Jason M. Davis 2003. Capuchin Cognitive Ecology: Cooperation Based on Projected Returns. Neuropsychology, 41: 221-228.
  27. —, & Lesleigh M. Luttrell, 1988. Mechanisms of Social Reciprocity in Three Primate Species: Symmetrical Relationship Characteristics or Cognition? Ethology & Sociobiology, 9: 101-118.
  28. Delaney, David, 2010. The Spatial, the Legal and the Pragmatics of World-Making. Nomospheric Investigations. Oxford: Routledge.
  29. Di Lucia, Paolo, 2000. La rilevanza di Cesare Goretti per la bioetica e l’etologia. In Strutture dell’esperienza. II. Piacere, dolore, senso [Annuario di itinerari filosofici, n. 4]. Milano: Mimesis.
  30. Fedigan, Linda M., & Laurence Fedigan, 1977. The Social Development of a Handicapped Infant in a Free-living Troop of Japanese Monkeys. In Frank E. Poirier & Suzanne Chevalier-Skolnikoff (eds.), Primate Biosocial Development: Biological, Social and Ecological Determinants. New York: Garland Press.
  31. Fikentscher, Wolfgang, 2004. Modes of Thought: A Study in Anthropology of Law and Religion. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
  32. Finlay, Stephen, in corso d’edizione. Defining Normativity. In David Plunkett, Scott Shapiro & Kevin Toh, Legal Norms, Ethical Norms: New Essays on Metaethics and Jurisprudence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  33. Fletcher, George P., 2003. Law. In Barry Smith (ed.), John Searle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  34. Fujii, Naotaka, & Iriki Atsushi, 2012. Social Rules and Body Scheme. In Frans B.M. de Waal & Pier Francesco Ferrari (eds.), The Primate Mind. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
  35. Gianola, Alberto, 1995. L’analisi etologica del diritto. Rivista di diritto civile, 41: 805-823.
  36. Ginsborg, Hannah, 2011. Primitive Normativity and Skepticism about Rules. The Journal of Philosophy, 108(5): 227-254.
  37. Goodall, Jane, 1983. Order without Law. In Margaret Gruter & Paul Bohannan (eds.), Law, Biology & Culture. Santa Barbara, CA: Ross-Erickson.
  38. Goretti, Cesare, 1928. L’animale quale soggetto di diritto. Rivista di filosofia, 19: 348-369. Riedito in Amedeo Giovanni Conte, Paolo Di Lucia, Luigi Ferrajoli & Mario Jori, Filosofia del diritto. A cura di Paolo Di Lucia. Milano: Cortina, 2013.
  39. —, 1930. I fondamenti del diritto. Milano: Libreria Editrice Lombarda.
  40. —, 1950. La normatività giuridica. Padova: Cedam.
  41. Gruter, Margaret, 1976. Die Bedeutung der Verhaltensforschung für die Rechtswissenschaft. Berlin: Duncker und Humblot.
  42. —, 1986. Ostracism as a Social and Biological Phenomenon: An Introduction. Ethology and Sociobiology, 7: 149-158.
  43. Haidt, Jonathan, 2001. The Emotional Dog and Its Rational Tail: A Social Intuitionist Approach to Moral Judgment. Psychological Review, 108(4): 814-834.
  44. —, 2003. The Moral Emotions. In Richard J. Davidson, Klaus R. Scherer, & H. Hill Goldsmith (eds.), Handbook of Affective Sciences. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  45. Hall, Kenneth Ronald Lambert, 1964. Aggression in Monkey and Ape Societies. In John Dennis Carthy, & Francis John Govier Ebling (eds.), The Natural History of Aggression. London: Academic Press.
  46. Hansell, Mike, 2005. Animal Architecture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  47. Hayek, Friedrich August von, [1967]2014. Notes on the Evolution of Systems of Rules of Conduct. In Bruce Caldwell (ed.), Collected Papers of F.A. von Hayek. Volume 15: The Market and the Other Orders. Chicago: The Univer-sity of Chicago Press.
  48. —, [1973]1982. Law, Legislation and Liberty: A New Statement of the Liberal Principles of Justice and Political Economy. Vol. I: Rules and Order. Lon-don: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  49. Jensen, Keith, Amrisha Vaish & Marco F.H. Schmidt, 2014. The Emergence of Human Prosociality: Aligning with Others through Feelings, Concerns, and Norms. Frontiers in Psychology, 5: 822.
  50. Kolber, Adam, 2001. Standing Upright: The Moral and Legal Standing of Humans and Other Apes. Stanford Law Review, 54(1): 163-204.
  51. Kummer, Hans, & Marina Cords, 1991. Cues of Ownership in Long-tailed Macaques, Macaca Fascicularis. Animal Behaviour, 42(4): 529-549.
  52. Lorini, Giuseppe, 2012a. Due a priori del diritto: l’a priori del giuridico in Cesare Goretti vs. l’a priori giuridico in Adolf Reinach. In Francesca De Vecchi (a cura di), Eidetica del diritto e ontologia sociale. Il realismo di Adolf Reinach. Milano-Udine: Mimesis.
  53. —, 2012b. La norma come strumento. In Alberto Contu (a cura di), Questione sarda e dintorni. Liber amicorum per Gianfranco Contu. Cagliari: Condaghes.
  54. —, & Francesco Marrosu, in corso d’edizione. From Habits to Norms. An Investigation of the Neurophysiological Basis of Normativity.
  55. McGrew, William Clement, & Caroline E.G. Tutin, 1978. Evidence for a Social Custom in Wild Chimpanzees? Man, 13: 234-251.
  56. Nozik, Robert, 2001. Invariances. The Structure of the Objective World. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
  57. Panksepp, Jaak, 1998. Affective Neuroscience: The Foundations of Human and Animal Emotions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  58. —, & Lucy Biven, 2012. The Archaeology of Mind: Neuroevolutionary Origins of Human Emotion. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
  59. Pisanò, Attilio, 2012. Diritti deumanizzati. Animali, ambiente, generazioni future, specie umana. Milano: Giuffrè.
  60. Rakoczy, Hannes, 2015. Comparative Metaphysics: the Development of Representing Natural and Normative Regularities in Human and Non-Human Primates. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Science, 14(4): 683-697.
  61. —, & Marco F.H. Schmidt, 2013. The Early Ontogeny of Social Norms. Child Development Perspectives, 7(1): 17-21.
  62. —, & Michael Tomasello, 2007. The Ontogeny of Social Ontology: Steps to Shared Intentionality and Status Functions. In Savas L. Tsohatzidis (ed.), Intentional Acts and Institutional Facts: Essays on John Searle’s Social Ontology. Berlin: Springer.
  63. —, Felix Warneken, & Michael Tomasello, 2008. The Sources of Normativity: Young Children’s Awareness of the Normative Structure of Games. Developmental Psychology, 44(3): 875-881.
  64. Sacco, Rodolfo, 1993. Il diritto muto. Rivista di diritto civile, 39: 689-702.
  65. —, 1994. L’occupazione, atto di autonomia. Rivista di diritto civile, 40: 343- 358.
  66. —, 2005. Il fatto, l’atto, il negozio. Con la collaborazione di Paola Risiano. Torino: UTET.
  67. —, 2007. Antropologia giuridica. Contributo ad una macrostoria del diritto. Bologna: il Mulino.
  68. —, 2010. Azione, pensiero, parola nella creazione del diritto. In Jacqueline Visconti (a cura di), Lingua e diritto. Livelli di analisi. Milano: LED.
  69. —, 2015. Il diritto muto. Neuroscienze, conoscenza tacita, valori condivisi. Bologna: il Mulino.
  70. Schlingloff, Laura, & Richard Moore, in corso d’edizione. Do Chimpanzees Conform to Cultural Norms? In Kristin Andrews & Jacob Beck (eds.), The Routledge Handbook to the Philosophy of Animal Mind. Oxford: Routledge.
  71. Schmidt, Marco F.H., & Michael Tomasello, 2012. Young Children Enforce Social Norms. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(4): 232-236.
  72. Searle, John R., 2003. Social Ontology and Political Power. In Frederick F. Schmitt (ed.), Socializing Metaphysics: The Nature of Social Reality. Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield.
  73. —, 2010. Making the Social World: The Structure of Human Civilization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  74. Singer, Peter, 1975. Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals. New York: Random House.
  75. Tinbergen, Niko, 1951. The Study of Instinct. Oxford: Clarendon.
  76. —, [1953]1969. Social Behaviour in Animals. London: Methuen. Traduzione ita-liana Il comportamento sociale degli animali. Torino, Einaudi.
  77. Tinklepaugh, Otto L., 1928. An Experimental Study of Representative Factors in Monkeys. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 8(3): 197-236.
  78. Van de Waal, Erica, Christèle Borgeaud, & Andrew Whiten, 2013. Potent Social Learning and Conformity Shape a Wild Primate’s Foraging Decisions. Science, 340(6131): 483-485.
  79. Van Schaik, Carel P., 2012. Animal Culture: Chimpanzee Conformity? Current Biology, 22: 922-926.
  80. —, & Judith Burkart, in corso d’edizione. The Evolution of Human Normativity: The Role of Prosociality and Conformity.
  81. Vincent, Sarah, Rebecca Ring, & Kristin Andrews, in corso d’edizione. Normative Practices of Other Animals. In Aaron Zimmerman, Karen Jones & Mark Timmons (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Moral Epistemology. Oxford: Routledge.
  82. Whiten, Andrew, Victoria Horner & Frans B.M. de Waal. 2005. Conformity to Cultural Norms of Tool Use in Chimpanzees. Nature, 437(7059): 737-740.
  83. Wyman, Emily, Hannes Rakoczy, & Michael Tomasello, 2009. Normativity and Context in Young Children’s Pretend Play. Cognitive Development, 24: 146-155.

Giuseppe Lorini, in "SOCIOLOGIA DEL DIRITTO " 3/2017, pp. 77-105, DOI:10.3280/SD2017-003004

   

FrancoAngeli è membro della Publishers International Linking Association associazione indipendente e no profit per facilitare l'accesso degli studiosi ai contenuti digitali nelle pubblicazioni professionali e scientifiche