The text discusses the theses of Renzo De Felice on the "consensus" in favour of fascism and on the "totalitarian state". The author notes that the judgements expressed in his biography of Mussolini are more qualified and less schematic than those of the Intervista sul fascismo. On the problem of the consensus of the intellectuals and the fascist regime, he notes the compromises made by intellectuals, and the strong continuity of nationalism, but also the limits of the regime’s intellectual control. He concludes by discussing the attitude of intellectuals towards communism and fascism in the postwar period, noting the consequences of the intellectual isolation imposed by the fascist regime.
Keywords: Fascism, Intellectuals, History, Communism.