On the fortieth anniversary of the Law no. 180/1978 on the Italian psychiatric reform that led to the closing of the Psychiatric Hospitals, the premises for its functioning are recalled: a policy in support of individual and social rights and universal public welfare. The enlargement of individual rights and at the same time the economic compatibility of social rights has created a contradictory condition and a growth of social exclusion. Mental health services seek to implement inclusion in communities where the social pact has changed. Therefore it is necessary to re-read the rules on the voluntary/obligatory nature of treatment, social danger, practice and organization of services, maintaining a universalistic approach. In 2015 also the Judicial Psychiatric Hospitals were closed.
Keywords: Italian Law no. 180/178; Psychiatric reform in Italy; Citizenship rights; Abandonment, Psychiatric services