The independence of Montenegro (2006) and Kosovo (2008), which were followed by the Scottish referendum (2014) and the Catalan plebiscite (2017), have brought to the forefront the relevance of international movements for the diffusion of ethnonationalism. The legitimacy of secession is therefore invoked by Scottish, Flemish, Catalan and South-Tyrolean nationalists, among others. Does it mean that a new transnational wave of self-determination is taking place? Should the process of European unity face a new challenge that could bring it to its final crisis?
Keywords: Nazionalismo, Movimenti etnonazionalisti, Unione europea, Autodeterminazione, Storia trasnazionale, Minoranze nazionali