Click here to download

Policy measures for electric vehicle adoption. A review of evidence from Norway and China
Author/s: Saiful Hasan, Terje Andreas Mathisen 
Year:  2020 Issue: Language: English 
Pages:  22 Pg. 25-46 FullText PDF:  291 KB
DOI:  10.3280/EFE2020-001003
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 

Purpose To mitigate energy and environmental challenges, several countries worldwide are considering different policies to promote the use of electric vehicles (EVs). Consequently, the necessity of studies focusing on the important and effective EV policy measures are develop-ing as policymakers are seeking to prioritize the policy measures based on their usefulness to achieve mass EV adoption. This study reviews evidence from China and Norway to identify factors that could substantially accelerate demand for EVs. Method We emphasize the cases of Norway and China, as these countries have already initiat-ed incentive-strong policies to accelerate EV’s acceptance in their market and have succeeded considerably in improving their EV market share during the early adoption phases. The find-ings and discussion of this study is principally based on the reviewed literature of related poli-cy measures and two cases of successful EV uptake policies, Findings The evidence points at the significance of EV policy measures such as purchase-based and use-based incentives, availability of publicly accessible charging infrastructures, availability of EVs in the local market and collective communication measures. As findings, we have developed a general framework of essential EV policy measures. The reviewed litera-ture and cases suggest that publicly accessible charging infrastructures and financial incentives play crucial role in uptake. Conclusion Our study suggests that to accelerate EV penetration in the market, it is required the policymakers to pay more attention to the policy measures included in our general frame-work. However, the magnitude of the influences and interplay between these policy measures may differ between regions and on the context. Hence, policymakers should reconsider and restructure the EV polices after a certain level of EV-uptake is realized in the market.
Keywords: Electric vehicles, market share, policy, Norway, China, EV adoption, alternative energy vehicles.
Jel Code: R41, R48

  1. Jørgensen F., Mathisen T.A., Solvoll G. (2010). Elbil eller konvensjonell bil? Økonomiske analyser. SIB report 2/2010. Bodø, Norway. --
  2. IEA (2018a). Global EV Outlook 2018: Towards cross-modal electrification. OECD/IEA, Paris.
  3. IEA (2018b). Nordic EV Outlook 2018: Insights from leaders in electric mobility. OECD/IEA, Paris.
  4. Jørgensen F., Mathisen T.A., Pedersen H. (2016). Brand Loyalty among Norwegian car Owners. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Service, 31: 256-264.
  5. Aasness M.A., Odeck J. (2015). The increase of electric vehicle usage in Norway – incentives and adverse effects. European Transport Research Review, 7: 34.
  6. Achtnicht M., Bühler G., Hermeling C. (2012). The impact of fuel availability on demand for alternative-fuel vehicles. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 17, 262-269.
  7. An D.F. (2016). China‟s NEV Policies and Market Development. Industrial Upgrading and Economic Growth in China Conference. Michigan.
  8. Axsen J., Kurani K.S. (2012). Interpersonal Influence within Car Buyers’ Social Networks: Applying Five Perspectives to Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle Drivers. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, 44(5), 1047-1065.
  9. Bakker S., Trip J.J. (2013). Policy options to support the adoption of electric vehicles in the urban environment. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 25: 18-23.
  10. Balcombe R., Mackett R., Paulley N., Preston J., Shires J., Titheridge H., Wardmann M., White P. (2004). The demand for public transport: a practical guide. TRL report 593, Transport Research Laboratory, UK.
  11. Baur D.G., Todorova N. (2018). Automobile manufacturers, electric vehicles and the price of oil. Energy Economics, 74: 252-262.
  12. Bitenews (2016). --
  13. Bjerkan K.Y., Nørbech T.E., Nordtømme M.E. (2016). Incentives for promoting Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) adoption in Norway. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 43: 169-180.
  14. Button K.J. (2010). Transport Economics (3rd ed.). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
  15. Chorus C.G., Koetse M.J., Hoen A. (2013). Consumer preferences for alternative fuel vehicles: Comparing a utility maximization and a regret minimization model. Energy Policy, 61: 901-908.
  16. Degirmenci K., Breitner M.H. (2017). Consumer purchase intentions for electric vehicles: Is green more important than price and range? Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 51: 250-260.
  17. Devaraj S., Matta K.F., Conlon E. (2001). Product and service quality: The antecedents of customer loyalty in the automotive industry. Production and Operations Management, 10(4): 424-439.
  18. EAFO (2018). Alternative fuels for sustainable mobility in Europe. --
  19. Egbue O., Long S. (2012). Barriers to widespread adoption of electric vehicles: An analysis of consumer attitudes and perceptions. Energy Policy, 48: 717-729.
  20. Eppstein M.J., Grover D.K., Marshall J.S., Rizzo D.M. (2011). An agent-based model to study market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Energy Policy, 39: 3789-3802.
  21. Fearnley N., Pfaffenbichler P., Figenbaum E., Jellinek R. (2015). E-vehicle policies and incentives-assessment and recommendations. Oslo.
  22. Figenbaum E. (2017). Perspectives on Norway’s supercharged electric vehicle policy. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 25: 14-34.
  23. Figenbaum E., Assum T., Kolbenstvedt M. (2015). Electromobility in Norway: Experiences and Opportunities. Research in Transportation Economics, 50: 29-38.
  24. Figenbaum E., Kolbenstvedt M. (2013). Electromobility in Norway - experiences and opportunities with Electric Vehicles. Oslo.
  25. Gibson R. (2017). Which Countries Have the Best Incentives for EV Purchases? --
  26. Global Petrol Prices (2015). Breakdown of oil consumption by sector. --
  27. Gjøen H., Hård M. (2002). Cultural Politics in Action: Developing User Scripts in Relation to the Electric Vehicle. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 27(2): 262-281.
  28. Hall D., Cui H., Lutsey N. (2018). Electric vehicle capitals: Accelerating the global transition to electric drive. International Council on Clean Transportation. --
  29. Hao H., Ou X., Du J., Wang H., Ouyang M. (2014). China’s electric vehicle subsidy scheme: Rationale and impacts. Energy Policy, 73: 722-732.
  30. Hardman S., Chandan A., Tal G., TomTurrentine (2017). The effectiveness offinancial purchase incentives for battery electricvehicles – A review of the evidence. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 80: 1100-1111.
  31. He H. (2013). Renewed and enhanced subsidies for energy-efficient vehicles in China. China: The International Council on Clean Transport. --
  32. Heffner R.R., Kurani K.S., Turrentine T.S. (2007). Symbolism in California’s early market for hybrid electric vehicles. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 12(6): 396-413.
  33. Helveston J.P., Liu Y., Feit E.M., Fuchs E., Klampfl E., Michalek J.J. (2015). Will subsidies drive electric vehicle adoption? Measuringconsumer preferences in the U.S. and China. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 73: 96-112.
  34. Hirsh E., Jullens J., Wilk R., Singh A. (2016). Auto industry trends: Automakers and suppliers can no longer sit out the industry’s transformation. --
  35. Hoen A., Koetse M.J. (2014). A choice experiment on alternative fuel vehicle preferencesof private car owners in the Netherlands. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 61, 199-215.
  36. Holtsmark B., Skonhoft A. (2014). The Norwegian support and subsidy policy of electric cars. Should it be adopted by other countries? Enviornmental Science & Policy, 42: 160-168.
  37. iCET (2016). China Consumer EV choice preference: Study Brief. Beijing.
  38. IEA (2011). World Energy Outlook 2011. OECD/IEA, Paris.
  39. IEA (2016a). CO2 emissions from fuel combustion by sector in 2014, in CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion, IEA, 2016. In CO2 Highlights 2016 – Excel tables.
  40. IEA (2016b). Global EV Outlook 2016: Beyond one million electric cars. OECD/IEA, Paris.
  41. Kitamura R., Mokhtarian P.L., Laidet L. (1997). A micro-analysis of land use and travel in five neighborhoods in the San Francisco Bay Area. Transportation, 24(2): 125-158.
  42. Krieger A., Radtke P., Wang L. (2012). Recharging China’s electric-vehicle aspirations. --
  43. Lane B., Potter S. (2007). The adoption of cleaner vehicles in the UK: exploring the consumer attitude-action gap. Journal of Cleaner Production, 15, 1085-1092.
  44. Langbroek J.H.M., Franklin J.P., Susilo Y.O. (2016). The effect of policy incentives on electric vehicle adoption. Energy Policy, 94: 94-103.
  45. Larson P.D., Viáfara J., Parsons R.V., Elias A. (2014). Consumer attitudes about electric cars: Pricing analysis and policy implications. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 69: 299-314.
  46. Lévay P.Z., Drossinos Y., Thiel C. (2017). The effect of fiscal incentives on market penetration of electric vehicles: A pairwise comparison of total cost of ownership. Energy Policy, 105: 524-533.
  47. Liao F., Molin E., van Wee B. (2017). Consumer preferences for electric vehicles: a literature review. Transport Review, 37(3): 252-275.
  48. Marro N., Liu H., Yan Y. (2015). Opportunities and Challenges in China’s Electric Vehicle Market. China Business Review. --
  49. Mersky A.C., Sprei F., Samaras C., Qian Z.S. (2016). Effectiveness of incentives on electric vehicle adoption in Norway. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 46: 56-68.
  50. Ministry of Finance (2015). Circular on the financial support policies for the promotion and application of new energy vehicles in 2016-2020. --
  51. Mock P., Yang Z. (2014). Driving Electrifications: a global comparison of fiscal incentive policies for electic vehicles. International Council on Clean Transportation. --
  52. Morris M. (2013). Constant Consideration: Brand Choice on the Path to Vehicle Purchase. --
  53. Myklebust B. (2013). EVs in bus lanes – controversial incentive Paper presented at the The 27th International Electric Vehicle Symposium & Exhibition, Barcelona, Spain.
  54. Noppers E.H., Keizer K., Bockarjova M., Steg L. (2015). The adoption of sustainable innovations: The role of instrumental, environmental, and symbolic attributes for earlier and later adopters. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 44: 74-84.
  55. Norsk Elbilforening (2018). Norwegian EV policy. --
  56. Norwegian Ministry of Transport and Communications. (2016). National Transport Plan 2018-2029. --
  57. Olczak N. (2015). China remains a rocky road for electric cars. --
  58. Ou S.L. (2017). A study of China’s explosive growth in the plug-in electric vehicle market. Oakridge: Oakridge National Laboratory.
  59. Ozaki R., Sevastyanova K. (2011). Going hybrid: An analysis of consumer purchase motivations. Energy Policy, 39: 2217–2227.
  60. Perkowski J. (2018). How Foreign Automakers Are Trying To Meet NEV Targets In Response To China’s New Electric Vehicle Rules. --
  61. Rezvani Z., Jansson J., Bodin J. (2015). Advances in consumer electric vehicle adoption research:A review and research agenda. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 34: 122-136.
  62. Rogers E.M. (1983). Diffusion of Innovations (3rd ed.). New York: The Free Press.
  63. Romare M., Dahllöf L. (2017). The life cycle energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from lithium-ion batteries: A study with focus on current technology and batteries for light-duty vehicles. Report C 243, May 2017. Stockholm: IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
  64. Schuitema G., Anable J., Skippon S., Kinnear N. (2013). The role of instrumental, hedonic and symbolic attributes in the intention to adopt electric vehicles. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 48: 39-49.
  65. Scorrano M., Mathisen T.A., Giansoldati M. (forthcoming). Is Electric Car Uptake Driven by Monetary Factors? A Total Cost of Ownership Comparison between Norway and Italy. Economics and Policy of Energy and the Environment.
  66. Serafimova T. (2015). Electric Vehicles: The Norwegian Experience in Overcoming Barriers. Brussels: Bellona Europa.
  67. Sierzchula W., Bakker S., Maat K., van Wee B. (2014). The influence of financial incentives and other socioeconomic factors on electric vehicle adoption. Energy Policy, 68: 183-194.
  68. Simsekoglu Ö. (2018). Socio-demographic characteristics, psychological factors and knowledge related to electric car use: A comparison between electric and conventional car drivers. Transport Policy, 72: 180-186.
  69. Skippon S., Garwood M. (2011). Responses to battery electric vehicles: UK consumer attitudes and attributions of symbolic meaning following direct experience to reduce psychological distance. Transportation Research Part D Transport and Environment, 16(7): 525-531.
  70. Solvoll G., Mathisen T.A., Jørgensen F. (2010). Electric vehicles – challenges with market introduction and practical user experiences. Paper presented at the European Transport Conference, Glasgow, UK.
  71. State Council (2012). Notice of the state council on issuing the planning for the development of the energy-saving and new energy automobile industry (2012-2020). --
  72. Tan Q., Wang M., Deng Y., Yang H., Rao R., Zhang X. (2014). The Cultivation of Electric Vehicles Market in China: Dilemma and Solution. Sustainability, 6: 5493-5511.
  73. Turrentine T.S., Kurani K.S. (2007). Car buyers and fuel economy? Energy Policy, 35(2): 1213-1223.
  74. Wan Z., Sperling D., Wang Y. (2015). China’s electric car frustrations. Transport Research Part D: Transport and Enviornment, 34: 116-121.
  75. Wang H., Kimble C. (2011). Leapfrogging to Electric Vehicles: Patterns and Scenarios for China’s Automobile Industry. International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management, 11(4): 312-325.
  76. Wang N., Pan H., Zheng W. (2017). Assessment of the incentives on electric vehicle promotion in China. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 101: 177-189.
  77. Wooldridge J.M. (2012). Introductory Econometrics: A Modern Approach (6th ed.). USA: South-Western Cengage Learning.
  78. Xiong Rui, Cao Jiayi, Yu Quanqing, He Hongwen, Sun Fengchun (2017). Critical Review on the Battery State of Charge Estimation Methods for Electric Vehicles. IEEE Access, 06: 1832-1843.
  79. Yang Z., Slowik P., Lutsey N., Searle S. (2016). Principles for effective electric vehicle incentive design. The International Council on Clean Transportation --
  80. Zhang Y., Yu Y., Zou B. (2011). Analyzing public awareness and acceptance of alternative fuel vehicles in China: The case of EV. Energy Policy, 39: 7015-7024.
  81. Zhao J. (2006). Whither the Car? China’s Automobile Industry and Cleaner Vehicle Technologies. Development and Change, 37(1): 121-144.
  82. Zheng J., Mehndiratta S., Guo J.Y., Liu Z. (2012). Strategic policies and demonstration program of electric vehicle in China. Transport Policy, 19: 17-25.
  83. Zheng Y. (2018). EV charging network to expand. China Daily. --

Saiful Hasan, Terje Andreas Mathisen, in "ECONOMICS AND POLICY OF ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT" 1/2020, pp. 25-46, DOI:10.3280/EFE2020-001003


FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content