Click here to download

Parents’ Psychological Factors Promoting Children’s Mental Health and Emotional Regulation During the COVID-19 Lockdown
Journal Title: MALTRATTAMENTO E ABUSO ALL’INFANZIA 
Author/s: Mara Morelli, Elena Cattelino, Roberto Baiocco, Emiddia Longobardi, Carmen Trumello, Alessandra Babore, Carla Candelori, Antonio Chirumbolo 
Year:  2021 Issue: Language: English 
Pages:  17 Pg. 47-63 FullText PDF:  205 KB
DOI:  10.3280/MAL2021-001004
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 


On March 9th, 2020 Italy went into lockdown due to the spread of COVID-19 pandemic. Several studies showed how the pandemic had a negative impact on children’s psychologi-cal well-being. The present research studied how parents can promote their children’s psy-chological well-being, in order to understand how to help parents in managing this unprec-edented situation. A total of 277 parents of children aged 6 to 13 years old completed an online survey. MANCOVA analyses showed that children with more anxiety and depres-sion, more lability/negativity and less emotional regulation had parents with more psycho-logical distress, less regulatory emotional self-efficacy, and less parenting self-efficacy (all p < .01). Parents were important protective factor for their children’s mental health during the lockdown.
Keywords: Pandemic, children, psychological well-being, emotion regulation, parenting self-efficacy

  1. Babore, A., Trumello, C., Lombardi, L., Candelori, C., Chirumbolo, A., Cattelino, E., Baiocco, R., Bramanti, S. M., Viceconti, M. L., Pignataro, S., Morelli, M. (2020). Mothers’ and Children’s Mental Health during COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown: The Mediating Role of Parenting Stress. Manuscript under review.
  2. Balaban, V. (2006). Psychological assessment of children in disasters and emergencies. Disasters, 30, 178-198.
  3. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York, NY: Freeman.
  4. Bandura, A., Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Gerbino, M., & Pastorelli, C. (2003). Role of affective self‐regulatory efficacy in diverse spheres of psychosocial functioning. Child Development, 74(3), 769-782., DOI: 10.1111/1467-8624.00567
  5. Bonacini, L., Gallo, G., & Scicchitano, S. (2020). Working from home and income inequality: risks of a ‘new normal’ with COVID-19. Journal of Population Economics, 34(1), 303-360.
  6. Brooks, S. K., Webster, R. K., Smith, L. E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., & Rubin, G. J. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: Rapid review of the evidence. The Lancet, 395, 912-920., DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8
  7. Caprara, G. V., Di Giunta, L., Pastorelli, C., & Eisenberg, N. (2013). Mastery of negative affect: A hierarchical model of emotional self-efficacy beliefs. Psychological Assessment, 25(1), 105-116.
  8. Cattelino, E., Morelli, M., Baiocco, R., & Chirumbolo, A. (2019). From external regulation to school achievement: The mediation of self-efficacy at school. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 60, 127-133,
  9. Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 385-396., DOI: 10.2307/2136404
  10. Costa, N. M., Weems, C. F., & Pina, A. A. (2009). Hurricane Katrina and youth anxiety: The role of perceived attachment beliefs and parenting behaviors. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23(7), 935-941.
  11. Crescentini, C., Feruglio, S., Matiz, A., Paschetto, A., Vidal, E., Cogo, P., & Fabbro, F. (2020). Stuck outside and inside: an exploratory study on the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak on Italian parents and Children’s internalizing symptoms. Frontiers in Psychology, 11.
  12. Danese, A., Smith, P., Chitsabesan, P., & Dubicka, B. (2020). Child and adolescent mental health amidst emergencies and disasters. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 216, 159-162.
  13. Davis, C. R., Grooms, J., Ortega, A., Rubalcaba, J. A. A., & Vargas, E. (2020). Distance Learning and Parental Mental Health During COVID-19. Educational Researcher., DOI: 10.3102/0013189X20978806
  14. Deater-Deckard, K. D., & Panneton, R. (2017). Parental stress and early child development. Adaptive and Maladaptive Outcomes. New York, NY: Springer International Publishing,, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-55376-4
  15. Di Folco, S., De Campora, G., & Zavattini, G.C. (2016). Sintonie e dissintonie nei legami precoci: traiettorie di valutazione e considerazioni cliniche nei contesti ad alto rischio per lo sviluppo infantile. Maltrattamento e Abuso all’Infanzia, 18(2), 71-93., DOI: 10.3280/MAL2016-002005
  16. Dumka, L. E., Stoerzinger, H. D., Jackson, K. M., & Roosa, M. W. (1996). Examination of the cross-cultural and cross-language equivalence of the parenting self-agency measure. Family Relations, 216-222., DOI: 10.2307/585293
  17. Eisenberg, N., Zhou, Q., Spinrad, T. L., Valiente, C., Fabes, R. A., & Liew, J. (2005). Relations among positive parenting, children’s effortful control, and externalizing problems: a three-wave longitudinal study. Child Development 76, 1055-1071.
  18. Hoven, C. W., Duarte, C. S., Lucas, C. P., Wu, P., Mandell, D. J., Goodwin, R. D., ... & Musa, G. J. (2005). Psychopathology among New York City public school children 6 months after September 11. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(5), 545-551.
  19. Ionio, C., & Mascheroni, E. (2014). The impact of maternal negative life experiences on the child. Maltrattamento e Abuso all'Infanzia, 16(3), 87-104.
  20. Jiao, W. Y., Wang, L. N., Liu, J., Fang, S. F., Jiao, F. Y., Pettoello-Mantovani, M., & Somekh, E. (2020). Behavioral and emotional disorders in children during the COVID-19 epidemic. The Journal of Pediatrics. 221, 264-266.
  21. Jones, T. L., & Prinz, R. J. (2005). Potential roles of parental self-efficacy in parent and child adjustment: a review. Clinical Psychology Review, 25, 341-363.
  22. Kopp, C. B. (1982). Antecedents of self-regulation: a developmental perspective. Developmental Psychology, 18(2),199-214., DOI: 10.1037/0012-1649.18.2.19
  23. Liu, J. J., Bao, Y., Huang, X., Shi, J., & Lu, L. (2020). Mental health considerations for children quarantined because of COVID-19. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, 4(5), 347-349., DOI: 10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30096-1
  24. Marchetti, D., Fontanesi, L., Mazza, C., Di Giandomenico, S., Roma, P., & Verrocchio, M. C. (2020). Parenting-related exhaustion during the italian COVID-19 lockdown. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 45(10), 1114-1123.
  25. Molina, P., Sala, M. N., Zappulla, C., Bonfigliuoli, C., Cavioni, V., Zanetti, M. A., ... & Raccanello, D. (2014). The Emotion Regulation Checklist-Italian translation. Validation of parent and teacher versions. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 11(5), 624-634., DOI: 10.1080/17405629.2014.898581
  26. Morelli, M., Cattelino, E., Baiocco, R., Trumello, C., Babore, A., Candelori, C., & Chirumbolo, A. (2020). Parents and Children During the COVID-19 Lockdown: The Influence of Parenting Distress and Parenting Self-Efficacy on Children’s Emotional Well-Being. Frontiers in Psychology, 11.
  27. Morgül, E., Kallitsoglou, A., & Essau, C. A. E. (2020). Psychological effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on children and families in the UK. Revista de Psicología Clínica con Niños y Adolescentes, 7(3), 42-48.
  28. Orgilés, M., Morales, A., Delvecchio, E., Mazzeschi, C., & Espada, J. P. (2020). Immediate psychological effects of the COVID-19 quarantine in youth from Italy and Spain. PsyArXiv.
  29. Pallini, S., Chirumbolo, A., Morelli, M., Baiocco, R., Laghi, F., & Eisenberg, N. (2018). The relation of attachment security status to effortful self-regulation: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 144(5), 501-531.
  30. Pallini, S., Morelli, M., Chirumbolo, A., Baiocco, R., Laghi, F., & Eisenberg, N. (2019). Attachment and attention problems: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 74.
  31. Ransing, R., Adiukwu, F., Pereira-Sanchez, V., Ramalho, R., Orsolini, L., Teixeira, A. L. S., ... & El Hayek, S. (2020). Mental health interventions during the covid-19 pandemic: A conceptual framework by early career psychiatrists. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 51.
  32. Shahyad, S., & Mohammadi, M. T. (2020). Psychological impacts of COVID-19 outbreak on mental health status of society individuals: a narrative review. Journal of Military Medicine, 22, 184-192., DOI: 10.30491/JMM.22.2.184
  33. Spinelli, M., Lionetti, F., Pastore, M., & Fasolo, M. (2020a). Parents’ stress and children’s psychological problems in families facing the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy. Frontiers in Psychology, 11.
  34. Spinelli, M., Lionetti, F., Setti, A., & Fasolo, M. (2020b). Parenting Stress During the COVID‐19 Outbreak: Socioeconomic and Environmental Risk Factors and Implications for Children Emotion Regulation. Family Process.
  35. Sprang, G., & Silman, M. (2013). Posttraumatic stress disorder in parents and youth after health-related disasters. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 7(1), 105-110.
  36. Stack, D. M., Serbin, L. A., Enns, L. N., Ruttle, P. L., & Barrieau, L. (2010). Parental effects on children’s emotional development over time and across generations. Infants & Young Children, 23(1), 52-69.
  37. Terrone, G., Musetti, A., Di Folco, S., & Pergola, R. F. (2017). Maternal and paternal depression: Risk and protective factors in parenthood. Maltrattamento e Abuso all'Infanzia, 19(1), 105-132., DOI: 10.3280/MAL2017-001007
  38. United Nations, (2020). Policy Brief: Covid-19 and the Need for Action on Mental Health. New York. NY: United Nations.
  39. Vygotskij, L. S. (1980). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. London, UK: Harvard University Press.
  40. Wang, G., Zhang, Y., Zhao, J., Zhang, J., & Jiang, F. (2020). Mitigate the effects of home confinement on children during the COVID-19 outbreak. The Lancet, 395, 945-947., DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30547-X
  41. WHO (2020a). Mental health and psychosocial considerations during the COVID-19 outbreak (documento internet: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/mental-health-considerations.pdf?sfvrsn=6d3578af_2).
  42. WHO (2020b). Substantial investment needed to avert mental health crisis (documento internet: https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/14-05-2020-substantial-investment-needed-to-avert-mental-health-crisis).
  43. Xie, X., Xue, Q., Zhou, Y., Zhu, K., Liu, Q., Zhang, J., & Song, R. (2020). Mental health status among children in home confinement during the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak in Hubei Province, China. JAMA Pediatrics.

Mara Morelli, Elena Cattelino, Roberto Baiocco, Emiddia Longobardi, Carmen Trumello, Alessandra Babore, Carla Candelori, Antonio Chirumbolo, in "MALTRATTAMENTO E ABUSO ALL’INFANZIA" 1/2021, pp. 47-63, DOI:10.3280/MAL2021-001004

   

FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content