This paper reveals Schutz’s double characterization of science. First, he characterizes science as a modification of interest and relevance. This is compatible with his basic view of science as embedded in the life-world. Second, in contrast, he often excludes working and communication from his argument on science and characterizes science as a pure cogitation. By critically examining the distinction between scientific attitude and scientific activity as well as the concept of cognitive style, this paper concludes that the second characterization proposed by Schutz is untenable. In addition, this paper indicates that the second characterization experienced a significant change from On Multiple Realities to Symbol, Reality, and Society. Although Schutz has been challenged by contemporary science studies because of his ineffectiveness to deal with scientific activity, the careful and critical examination of his argument allows a positive interpretation of his theory as offering basic concepts for the investigation of scientific activity.