The survey is intended to investigate the functional and organizational prospects of the new local dimension of the State, which are laid down in the positive framework already available (Act 59/1997; legislative decrees No 300, 303 of 1999) and on the relations system on which the relation between State and local autonomies is to be based. This essay stems from a conceptual revision of the author’s experience and reflections as component (Ministry of the internal affairs) of CAMBIA PA (Public Administration Change), a project of change management in the Italian national public administration and as component of the study’s commission for the legislative model of UTG (Ufficio territoriale del Governo, a new local structure of the State). The issue is particularly interesting considering that the State local organization, after a long-lasting legislative vacancy, is now subject of the recent reform bills of a newly found centralism, which opens a significant scenario. In the framework of a complex re-organization started in 1997 by Act 59, the State presence in the territory is to be found at a crucial point where the new paradigm of autonomy merges with a State system which is itself leaning towards a new condition. The survey intends to analyse the above aspects, provided that: the reform launched in 1997, aimed to carry out a complete reorganization of the public administration, operated according to a "systematic" view and re-articulated, under the functional aspect, the various subjects concerned (State-local autonomies); within such "macro system", the "territory" represents a strategic focus for its strong attracting power, due both to the importance of the subjects representing it (autonomies) and to its capability to give a straight response to he "consumers"; the "erritory" is to be seen as a "system" within the "system", in which the autonomies and the State co-exist as under-systems. Due to its centralism, territory requires to be brought back to units: on the one hand, with a new functional and structural organization of the State presence, on the other hand by overcoming the parallelism State/autonomies, which needs to be integrated in order to finally achieve a comprehensive role of the State-system.