Analysed the different interpretation by ethologists working within the framework traced by Konrad Lorenz (referred to such as "the German school of ethology") and by those ones influenced by the position of Nikko Tinbergen and Robert Hinde (referred to such as"the British school of ethology") of Darwinian principles as far as it concerns natural selection, instinct, motivation’s models, the relation between individuals and society. It is stated that Lorenz‘s deterministic view of instinct led evolutionary approach to be rejected by social scientists; Hinde’s interpretation of behaviour in terms of a continuous organism-enviroment interaction during the life-span shed a new light on the interpretation of innate bases and let psychologists understand the utility of answering to the four whys of Tinbergen. To illustrate the different positions by the two schools altruistic behaviour and aggression are discussed. Furthermore violence and multiethnic conflicts are examined in terms of exit of multiple predispositions which were adaptive in the evolutionary adaptness environment and that turn to be maladaptive at our days. Links between what we know by ethology and the results of research work carried out within the field of social psychology as far as concern stereotypes, social identity and intergroup discrimination, social norms, obedience to authority are stressed.