The first Italian NAMEA(National Accounting Matrix including Environmental Accounts) allows to measure the impact of production and consumption activities on the emission of six air pollutants and on the absorption of four virgin natural resources. The paper shows the results of an input-output analysis applied to the Italian NAMEA. Among the production activities, energy, transport and agriculture appear to heavily contribute both directly and indirectly to the air pollution. The picture changes when we assume an alternative evaluation system based on the «real» prices of the output, i.e. prices relative to labour assumed as numéraire. In that case construction, trade, other private and public services as well as final consumption appear to share a more significant responsibility of the pollution. The result is relevant for the design of fiscal policies aiming at charge the burden of pollutants reduction among different sources.