Genetic engineering applied to agriculture is one of the most controversial field of modern biotechnology. The recent large diffusion of transgenic foods has produced many different national policies and regulatory frameworks. In this paper the Authors stressed particularly the main debate among USA and Ue on GMOs. The different political approaches were examined in terms of international market access, property right, consumers’ concerns and attitudes toward risk assessment. In addition to that the right of the public for a correct information was evaluated. The possibility of fighting hunger problems, still present in many Developing Countries, through the use of transgenic crops was examined as real, potential, strong new tool. Finally, we analysed the opportunity of introduction GMOs in the Italian Agricultural food system.