This article analyzes the Italian public administration and its course from the last twenty years to the current change. Previously there had been other attempts to reform, unsuccessful just because they were only legislated, but now there are definite results. The article deals with the analysis of the causes of the current success of the reform and with the unsettled factors which are defined as the critical factors of success. Moreover, this article points out the New Public Management theory, which guides the reform policy. A basic part of the text concerns the future and, in particular, the other steps which would be possible because of the governance decision to use new systems of control and of internal evaluation such as the Key Performance Indicators and the Balanced Scorecard. The article defends the critical but interesting theory that it would be necessary to develop every solution by a point of view of knowledge and not of management. On the other hand, this text emphasizes the growing need to re-form, through specialized schools and academies, every partaker of the political and bureaucratic system.