Gadamer and Neokantianism - The article deals with Gadamer’s ambivalent attitude towards Neokantianism in regard to three main subjects. Firstly we consider Gadamer’s early attempts to deconstruct transcendental idealism in the dispute with Nicolai Hartmann. Then we discuss Gadamer’s sceptical remarks concerning the neokantian concepts of the history of philosophical problems. Finally we look at examples of Gadamer’s way of reading ancient philosophy, including the polemic statements against Natorp’s interpretation of Plato. Our conclusion is that Gadamer is at most slightly influenced by Neokantianism, and that Neokantianism is merely the background for his independent and enthusiastic reception of Heidegger’s philosophy.