Present and future of peasant culture - While a re-evaluation of the peasant role is emerging at the scientific level, public and institutional opinion is still influenced by the classical image of antimodern peasants. In the last years, rural sociologists and some agrarian economists have emphasized the persistence of the "peasant model of farming". Considering the present food and environmental crises, the new functions developed in the family farm represent a structural change, both in social and economic terms. By proposing the definition of strategic fertility as a specific relationship with the soil in view of a durable reproduction, the author is outlining the new relevant aspects of the peasant culture. Key words: peasant culture; peasant agriculture; family farm; land; biological fertility; co-evolution.