Cluster policy in Europe: tendencies and emerging critical elements - Cluster policy today represent one of the main elements of the European agenda, both for policy makers and for practitioners. In the last decade an extensive-type cluster policy has produced a proliferation of clusters all over the Europe, but the generated quality of clusters created has not always been quite satisfactory. Following the input by the European commission, currently is underway a qualitative review of the goals and processes of European cluster policy. This paper aims at presenting such changes in the European cluster policy, beside the main lessons that can be learned. The analysis emphasizes some critical elements of the current process of "clustering" and highlights the role of the institutions, besides the market, in the planning of new clusters and the strengthening of those existing. The final message is that Europe needs a better cluster policy, rather than more clusters, according to the growing complexity and dynamism of clusters.
Parole chiave: cluster, politica dei cluster, approccio triple-helix, sistemi adattivi complessi.
Keywords: cluster, cluster policy, triple helix approach, complex adaptive systems.