Rifiuti e Società - The expression "garbage emergency", used in Italy to describe an uncontrolled accumulating of garbage on the Italian territory, and the growing presence in the global society of many rubbish dumps, quite often illegal, are a concern for a serious social alarm, suggesting to the whole of humanity to pay particular attention to the environmental policy regarding garbage. The following paper will stress the relationship existing between garbage and society, with a particular reference to the relationship connected to garbage and human health, analyzed in the light of accurate studies carried out by the World Health Organization (WHO). In the territory of Campania Region (Italy), several forms of protest seem to have taken the place of important democratic ways of participation. In relation to the situation in Campania, this paper will particularly examine three types of inhabitants protest. Moreover, it is important to stress that each day every human being produces a considerable quantity of garbage; hence, it becomes a duty emphasizing the sustainability in the production of the same garbage. In this regard, in the current legislation there are certain principles, worthy of relevance from a social-ethical point of view. In this perspective, the position of the future generations is significant, just like the role practiced by the environmental law; in this respect, finally, a brief discussion concerning some studies of philosophic-environmental nature will follow.