Territorial control is one of the most important elements for the survival of the mafia. It is an obligated path to be able to obtain and control economic activities and to penetrate into all profitable sectors. Without territorial control it is impossible to control voters and without it all relationships with politics wither and die. It is within the territory where the imposition of "pizzo" (protection money) and extortion are planned against businesses and firms. This impending presence is also the cause in which citizens and families find themselves submitted to violence, the abuse of power and, if not only, to a limitation to their sphere of action. Telling the story about the scappati is to explain how, by their use of violence, Cosa Nostra has taken away from the State its lawful supremacy over large parts of the national territory. They planned the removal or deportation, under the threat of death, of entire families connected to the mafia. This story began in 1980 and is yet to be finished. The scappati migrated to the usa during the second mafia war and today they would like to come back to Palermo. However, not all agree with this possibility. The Sicilian mafia is in a critical position and if these refugees return it could produce a drastic and unexpected change in its leadership. Reading the pizzini (small notes of mafia members), analysing these sources, reconstructing scenarios makes it is easy to image what could happen if they returned: a new bloody conflict among mafia families.
Key words: Cosa Nostra, territorial control, transnational crime, maxi-trial, mafia wars, the scappati.
Parole chiave: Cosa nostra, controllo del territorio, crimine transnazionale, maxiprocesso, guerre di mafia, scappati.