Strength and weakness of the new welfare - The paradigm of active welfare state, if not properly contextualized, leads to some unsolvable problems. The first is considering employment as a key issue of the new welfare: access to employment may be considered an opportunity and not a right, but only if that opportunity is actual. Besides, the aim of employability is not a feasible proposition within a purely functional scheme as not only employment but "good employment" is needed. The second problem springs from the importance given to lifelong learning and education as protection/resource for employability. Education is not equally distributed. It is influenced by normative, organizational, financial and contractual factors between employees as well as by individual will, that is directly linked to the educational level. Thus there is a clear need for activation policies that put together employment, training, welfare, civil and political participation in order to make room for a greater involvement and responsibleness of individuals and families, according to the changes that take place in life courses.
Keywords: Active welfare state, lifelong learning, empowerment, flexicurity,"life career", active citizenship