During the last fifty years, starting from the ‘Year of Africa’ (1960: 17 African States proclaimed their Independence) the African population has entered a period of very rapid growth: Africa reached 1 bilion inhabitants in 2009. The large towns, in particular, where involved in this phenomenon during the last decades: if only two towns, Ibadan and Johannesburg, had more than one million inhabitants in the midst of the last cen- tury, twenty years later 25 towns can enter this category. More than one third of the total population (38%, nearly 350 millions inhabitants) lived in an urban milieu in 2005, and according with some scholars the African ‘citizens’ will be more than the half of the total population at the midst of our century, probably 65%. The analysis of some case-studies, concerning the capital cities, shows the specific problems of some the largest African towns and their ties with the evolution of the political situation of their countries.
Keywords: Subsaharan Africa, Demographie growth, Urban growth