This essay examines the political and administrative events in Niger, the Sub Saharian Country with the lowest Gdp per capita in the world. The Colonial period since 1895 to 1960 (firs part of the essay) highlights the difficulties that faced the French in occupying a territory so vast, inaccessible and inhabited by hostile populations. The result was a Country that on 1960 - independence date - was administratively divided into two: the south western regions under French control, the north eastern with permanent administrative problems and still under French military control. From 1960 to 1991 (second part) many kind of political events happened in the Country: the first Republic, the military coup and the subsequent changes of 1983 due to the reforms involved by the Société pour le dévéloppement. Each of these events has influenced the administrative subdivision whose organization remains very similar to the French system. The 1991 was an important year. In Niger, as in much of Africa, the National conferences constitute a turning point towards democratization and administrative decentralization. Just like the decentralization is a key topic for the political and administrative history of Niger since 1991 up to date, whose main focus - retraced here in part three - are the development of local municipalities and the first administrative elections of 2004. The conclusions of the study provide some reflection in order to read today’s critical point of decentralisation in Niger and its socio-economic consequences.
Keywords: Niger, Administrative and political history, Decentralisation