The attention paid to trauma and to trauma survivors in the last 25 years has been for the most part devoted to the individual primary victims, ac- cording to the the Primary Traumatic Stress Theory. Graduallly, observation of direct and indirect effects of traumatic events drove many researchers to consider with great interest some systemic aspects of trauma, according to what Figley has defined as the Secondary Traumatic Stress Theory. However, only recently a real systemic hypothesis of trauma has been recognized together with the discovery of how much couple and family can amplify its effects. At the same time there is now a new recognition of the fact that couple and family are fundamental resources of the therapeutic approach to PTSD, and that the systemic intervention should be considered as particularly indicated and effective to treat trauma problems and their individual and relational consequences.
Keywords: Trauma, PTSD, survivors, systemic approach, couple