The relationship between knowledge and work has been submitted to profound criticisms and revisions. Despite the different perspectives, the imperative to build a knowledge society influences the process of redefinition of this relationship and education are submitted to the instrumental role for economic growth. At the same time, work is submitted to transformation that weakens relationship with citizenship. The centrality of knowledge in social and economic processes calls into question both the quality of educational system and the quality of work and its organization: it is therefore necessary to develop a critical perspective that analyses inequality risk and the empowerment. In this paper, within such a perspective, has been introduced the relationship between learning processes and job trajectories, and shortly it recalls some of the main directions of research linked to these two issues.
Keywords: Individualization, work, knowledge society, inequality, citizenship, capability