If we consider the roles of large and small firms in Italy, we observe that for both there was an inadequate response to the challenge posed by the globalization. The apparent immobility of the business system in Italy is determined by the inadequacy of its evolution and seem to lack the strength to activate and the domination of a multiplicity of functions. It has not produced the knock-on effect by a number of operators of sufficient size; small firms have not been able to retain and reinvest the added value needed to sustain its growth. However, the apparent immutability of the italian business system masks significant changes that should be investigated carefully to see whether it can, for the next year, to contribute to the development of wealth and well-being or be ordered to reduce this contribution.
Keywords: SMEs, competitiveness, relations between business, human capital