This paper focuses attention on the fitness of the italian industrial system in respect to the changes which affect the world economy e the set of technological innovations. However, analysis is developed referring to the cognitive structures of decision processes implemented by agents operating in the industrial districts, with a particular attention to italian experience. So, the starting point of the paper is represented by an analysis of the cognitive approach to knowledge. The concept of knowledge have strictly cognitive basis, while the concept of information has a machanicistic basis. Analysis of knowledge in political economy can start from the idea that every economic system is a part of a set of wider systems (political, cultural, military ones). These systems have the force to condition the evolutionary dynamics of the knowledge system. Agents cannot know completely the economic world dynamics because of their informational and computational bounds. Today thees bounds area growing in the context of the industrial districts.
Keywords: Knowledge, Industrial Districts, Productive Networks