madrasse, appoggiati da potenze come Stati Uniti, Arabia Saudita, Pakistan. Questi sono i talebani che poi sconfiggono i sovietici e in seguito assumono le connotazioni Al Qaediste e terroristiche. La dinamica dei relativi rapporti tra profughi e pashtun delle aree tribali viene svolta dall’Autore, mettendo in risalto i tentativi di spingere i tre milioni di profughi al rientro in Afghanistan. In questa logica ruolo fondamentale hanno gli Stati Uniti, il cambio politico del Pakistan, le Ong, l’Unhcr. Vengono altresì messi in risalto i caratteri organizzativi di queste tribù, con la sovrapposizione di tante jirga (da quelle familiari a quella regionale), e i caratteri sociali della popolazione. Si conclude con un riferimento al futuro.)" />
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The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (Fata), Afghan refugees and peace in Afghanistan and Pakistan
Journal Title: FUTURIBILI 
Author/s: Nicolò Gasparini 
Year:  2011 Issue: 1-2 Language: Italian 
Pages:  26 Pg. 36-61 FullText PDF:  332 KB
DOI:  10.3280/FU2011-001004
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The Author analyses a border area which is at once a state division and an ethnic and cultural union. The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (Fata) are in Pakistan on its border with Afghanistan. The description highlights their political, legal, economic, productive and commercial characteristics, placing special emphasis on their ethnic unity with the neighbouring part of Afghanistan. The area has always played a key role, but especially since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, which produced a flood of Afghan refugees and the establishment of a series of refugee camps in Pakistan. But above all this area, and its capital Peshawar, became the centre for new Islamic fundamentalist groups which formed around the madrassas and enjoyed the support of powers such as the United States, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan itself. Having defeated the Soviets and subsequently becoming known as the Taleban, these groups then allied themselves to Al Qaeda and terrorism. The Author’s analysis of relations between the refugees and native Pashtun in the Tribal Areas highlights efforts to induce the three million refugees to return to Afghanistan, in which major roles are played by the United States, political changes in Pakistan, the Ngos and the Unhcr. The analysis also focuses on the tribes’ organisational features, especially the overlapping of jirgas from family to regional level, and the social characteristics of the population. It concludes with a look at the future.
Keywords: Aree tribali pakistane, talebani, campi di rifugiati, Pakistan, ritorno dei Profughi

Nicolò Gasparini, The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (Fata), Afghan refugees and peace in Afghanistan and Pakistan in "FUTURIBILI" 1-2/2011, pp. 36-61, DOI:10.3280/FU2011-001004


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