In the essay, the initiatives of Allied government for protection of European historic buildings during the Second World War are analyzed, with particular regard to Germany. Thanks to the analysis of documentation stored in American archives, the author reveals the efforts of some non-military associations, which counted some of the most famous scholars all over the world. The aim of these associations was to provide a precise documentation - a sort of inventory - of historic and artistic European heritage, classified in order of importance, to military authorities who where in the battlefield. In Germany, in spite of the care in working them out, the inventory was practically useless, because of the destructive strategy of area bombing. The military task forces, who were expressly trained to deal with protection of artistic, architectonic and bibliographical heritage in war heritage - the so-called Advisors of monuments - could use inventories only to certify the destruction of those monuments which had been recorded in the lists, and to verify the amount of war damage. They rarely made provision for urgent repairs to damaged heritage.
Keywords: Allied government, Protection, Historic buildings, Germany