In his work De vita et moribus tredecim virorum Paraguaycorum (1795), former Paraguayan jesuit Josè Manuel Peramás included a Commentarius which drew a comparison between the famous Reductions of Paraguay and Plato’s Utopian State. Such inclusion greatly contributed to the fame of Peramás’ work and its fortune in recent years. With this essay, the author demonstrates that the Commentarius joined in an Italian context that was experiencing a revamped interest for Plato’s political works, which Peramàs studied at the Univesity of Cervera, Spain, at the school of thought of the humanist Finestres. In examining Commentarius’s content, the author stresses the apologetic aspects, which refer to Domingo Muriel’s works, last Provincial of Paraguay. In fact, Peramás meant to contrast the political model of Paraguayan missions to the achievements of the French Revolution, this by using Platonic’s Utopia to reaffirm a classical politology, strongly tied with Second Scholasticism, particularly Francisco Suárez.
Keywords: Paraguay, Peramás, Plato, Muriel, Revolution, Jesuits.