Provisioning Lyon, 16th-18th century Market Urban history This article analyzes the grain supply system and the organization of the urban grain market built by public authorities in 17th century Lyon. The steps taken in this construction, which were difficult and slow, included among others things specific rules concerning the buying and selling of grain and bread in town as well as the construction of a public system of grain storage. The debate on these issues involved public authorities and mercantile elites, allowing us to understand, not only the specific solutions adopted by the Consulat but also, the way in which the more general social and political relationships within the city were driven, and thought about, by political forces. The «grain issue» reveals itself as a political duty but also as an opportunity to increase private resources. Both political authorities and the economic elite - who in fact overlap most of the time - largely take advantage of their positions for increasing their personal wealth.