The paper deals with the relationship between scholastic tuition and popular traditions through the analysis of the copybooks and the pupils’ journals exposed during 1929 School Exposition in Pistoia. The paper shows that the renewal of demology during 1920s and the attention Fascism gave to popular traditions are linked to the great number of popular poems and customs recorded. The Author stated these sources showed a "selected tradition" shaped by Fascism and followed by the primary teachers: peasants customs are selected and praised if they were considered good or they were rejected if they were considered harmful for State attempts to make to grow its influence among peasants. For the Author, these behaviour led Fascism to try to take the leading place of families in young peasants’ mentality, but the building of a new concept of tradition and State led pupils to start to think about modernity in a new and individual way.
Keywords: Popular traditions, modernisation, Fascism cultural policy, school, school copybooks; teachers.