Click here to download

An evolutionary perspective on motivation: Implications for clinical dialogue.
Journal Title: PSICOTERAPIA E SCIENZE UMANE 
Author/s: Mauricio Cortina, Giovanni Liotti 
Year:  2014 Issue: Language: Italian 
Pages:  50 Pg. 23-72 FullText PDF:  647 KB
DOI:  10.3280/PU2014-001003
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 


A taxonomy of basic motivational systems (reptilian, mammalian, and neo-mammalian), that emerged in phases during the course of millions of years, is proposed. These different phases did not replace each other, but became re-organized in the brain at different hierarchical levels. It is argued that (1) humans are an ultra-cooperative species, and (2) high degrees of cooperation put strong selective pressures toward the development of sophisticated forms of intersubjective communication. These two developments had cascading effects on human evolution, creating both the conditions upon which humans were able to understand intentions, gestures, emotions and ultimately the minds of others, and the emergence of language and symbolic forms of cultural evolution. Possible evolutionary steps that led to this ultra-cooperative survival strategy and some of their genetic mechanism, with special emphasis on a multilevel model of selection, are described, and the implications for psychotherapy and psychoanalysis are explored.
Keywords: Motivation, cooperation, intersubjective communication, multilevel selection, psychotherapy

  1. Axelrod R. (1984). The Evolution of Cooperation. New York: Basic Books.
  2. Axelrod R. & Hamilton W.D. (1981). The evolution of cooperation. Science, 211, 4489: 1390-1396., 10.2307/1685895DOI: 10.2307/1685895
  3. Adler A. (1938). Superiority and Social Interest: A Collection of Later Writings (Ansbacher
  4. H.L. & Ansbacher R.R., editors). New York: Norton (trad. it.: Aspirazione alla superioritàe sentimento comunitario. Roma: EUR, 2008).
  5. Ainsworth M.D., Blehar M.C., Waters E. & Wall S. (1978). Patterns of Attachment. A Psychological Study of the Strange Situation. Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum.
  6. Alexander R.D. (1987). The Biology of Moral Systems. New York: Aldine and Gruyter.
  7. Alexander R.D. (1974). The evolution of social behavior. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 5: 325-384., 10.1146/annurev.es.05.110174.001545DOI: 10.1146/annurev.es.05.110174.001545
  8. Balter M. (2005). Are human brains still evolving? Brain genes show sighs of selection. Science, 9, 5741: 1662-1663., 10.1126/science.309.5741.1662DOI: 10.1126/science.309.5741.1662
  9. Balter M. (2010a). Anthropologist brings worlds together. Science, 329, 5993: 743-745., 10.1126/science.329.5993.743DOI: 10.1126/science.329.5993.743
  10. Balter M. (2010b). Score one for hunting in the Olduvai. Science, 329, 5998: 1464-1465., 10.1126/science.329.5998.1464-aDOI: 10.1126/science.329.5998.1464-a
  11. Balter M. (2011). South African cave slowly shares secrets of human culture. Science: 332, 6035: 260-261., 10.1126/science.332.6035.1260DOI: 10.1126/science.332.6035.1260
  12. Balter M. (2012a). Early dates for artistic Europeans. Science, 336, 6085: 1086-1987., 10.1126/science.336.6085.1086DOI: 10.1126/science.336.6085.1086
  13. Balter M. (2012b). Ice Age tools hint to 40,000 years of Bushman culture. Science, 337, 6094: 512., 10.1126/science.337.6094.512DOI: 10.1126/science.337.6094.512
  14. Bateson M.C. (1971). The interpersonal context of infant vocalization. Quarterly Review Rep. Res. Lab. Electronics, 100: 170-176.
  15. Beebe B. & Lachmann F.M. (2002). Infant Research and Adult Treatment. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press (trad. it.: Infant research e trattamento degli adulti: un modello sistemicodiadico delle interazioni. Milano: Raffaello Cortina, 2003).
  16. Besser A., Neria Y. & Haynes M. (2009). Adult attachment, perceived stress, and PTSD among civilians exposed to ongoing terrorist attacks in Southern Israel. Personality and Individual Differences. Personality and Individual Differences, 47: 851-857., 10.1016/j.paid.2009.07.003.InterneteditioninPDF:http://avibesser.weebly.com/uploads/1/1/6/3/11638937/p56.pdfDOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2009.07.003.InterneteditioninPDF:http://avibesser.weebly.com/uploads/1/1/6/3/11638937/p56.pdf
  17. Bjorklund D.F. & Rosenberg J.S. (2005). The role of developmental plasticity in the evolution of human cognition. In: Bjorklund D.F. & Ellis B.R., editors, Origins of the Social Brain. Evolutionary Psychology and Child Development. New York: Guilford, 2005, pp. 45-75.
  18. Bleichmar H. (1997a). Avances en Psicoterapia Psicoanalitica. Hacia Una tecnica de intervenciones especificas. Barcelona: Ediciones Paidos Iberica.
  19. Bleichmar H. (1997b). Attachment and intimacy in adult relations. In: Bleichmar, 1997a. Trad. inglese in: Cortina M. & Marrone M., editors, Attachment Theory and the Psychoanalytic Process. New York: Wiley, 2003, pp. 382-405
  20. Boehm C. (2012). Moral Origins. The Evolution of Virtue, Altruism, and Shame. New York: Basic Books.
  21. Boehm C. (1999). Hierarchy in the Forest. The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  22. Bonta B.D. (1997). Cooperation and competition in peaceful societies. Psychobiological Bulletin, 121, 2: 299-320., 10.1037/0033-2909.121.2.299DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.121.2.299
  23. Bowlby J. (1969). Attachment and Loss. Vol. 1: Attachment. London: Hogarth Press (2nd edition: New York: Basic Books, 1982) (trad. it.: Attaccamento e perdita. Vol. 1: L’attaccamento alla madre. Torino: Boringhieri, 1972 [1a ediz.], 1989 [2a ediz.]).
  24. Bowlby J. (1973). Attachment and Loss. Vol. 2: Separation: Anxiety and Anger. London: Hogarth Press (trad. it.: Attaccamento e perdita. Vol. 2: La separazione dalla madre. Torino: Boringhieri, 1975).
  25. Bowlby J. (1980). Attachment and Loss. Vol. 3: Loss: Sadness and Depression. London: Hogarth Press (trad. it.: Attaccamento e perdita. Vol. 3: La perdita della madre. Torino: Boringhieri, 1983).
  26. Bowles S. (2006). Group competition, reproductive leveling, and the evolution of human altruism. Science, 314, 5805: 1569-1572., 10.1126/science.1134829DOI: 10.1126/science.1134829
  27. Bowles S. & Gintis H. (2011). A Cooperative Species. Human Reciprocity and it’s Evolution. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  28. Boyd R. (2006). The puzzle of human sociality. Science, 314, 5805: 1555-1556., 10.1126/science.113684DOI: 10.1126/science.113684
  29. Boyd R., Richerson J.P. & Henrich J. (2011a). The cultural nuche: Why social learning is essential for human adaptation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108: 10918-10925., 10.1073/pnas.1100290108DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1100290108
  30. Boyd R., Richerson J.P. & Henrich J. (2011b). Rapid cultural adaptation can facilitate the evolution of large-scale cooperation. Behavior Ecology Sociobiology, 65: 431-444., 10.1007/s00265-010-1100-3.InterneteditioninPDF:http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs00265-010-1100-3.pdfDOI: 10.1007/s00265-010-1100-3.InterneteditioninPDF:http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs00265-010-1100-3.pdf
  31. Boyd R. & Richerson P.J. (2005). The Origin and Evolution of Cultures. New York: Oxford University Press.
  32. Bureau J., Easterbrooks A. & Lyons-Ruth K. (2009). Attachment disorganization and rolereversal in middle childhood: Maternal and child precursors and correlates. Attachment & Human Development, 11: 265-284., 10.1080/14616730902814788DOI: 10.1080/14616730902814788
  33. Burkart J.M. & Van Schaik C.P. (2010). Cognitive consequences of cooperative breeding in primates? Animal Cognition, 13: 1-19., 10.1007/s10071-009-0263-7DOI: 10.1007/s10071-009-0263-7
  34. Burrow T. (1927). The autonomy of the “I” from the standpoint of group analysis. Psyche, 1928, VIII, 3: 35-50. Anche in: Pertegato & Pertegato, 2013, ch. 16, pp. 189-206.
  35. Cassidy J. (2008). The nature of the child’s ties. In: Cassidy & Shaver, 2008, pp. 3-23.
  36. Cassidy J. & Shaver P.R., editors (1999). Handbook of Attachment. 1st edition. New York: Guilford (trad. it.: Manuale dell’attaccamento: teoria, ricerca e applicazioni cliniche. Roma: Fioriti, 2002).
  37. Cassidy J. & Shaver P.R., editors (2008). Handbook of Attachment. 2nd edition. New York: Guilford (trad. it.: Manuale dell’attaccamento: teoria, ricerca e applicazioni cliniche. Roma: Fioriti, 2010).
  38. Cavalli-Sforza L.L & Feldman M.W. (1981). Cultural Transmission and Evolution. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  39. Chapais B. (2008). Primeval Kinship. How Pair Bonding Gave Birth to Human Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  40. Chapais B. (2011). The deep social structure of humankind. Science, 331: 1276-1277., 10.1126/science.1203281DOI: 10.1126/science.1203281
  41. Cheney D.L. & Seyfarth R.M. (2007). Baboon Metaphysics, The Evolution of a Social Mind. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  42. Choi J-K & Bowles S. (2007). The coevolution of parochial altruism and war. Science, 318: 636-640., 10.1126/science.1144237DOI: 10.1126/science.1144237
  43. Clutton-Brock T. (2009). Cooperation between non-kin in animal societies. Nature, 462, 7269: 51-57., 10.1038/nature08366DOI: 10.1038/nature08366
  44. Cortina M. (2015). An evolutionary outlook on motivation: Implications for the clinical dialogue. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 35, 2, in press.
  45. Cortina M. & Liotti G. (2007). New approaches to understanding unconscious processes: Implicit and explicit memory systems. International Forum of Psychoanalysis, 16, 4: 204-212., 10.1080/08037060701676326.InterneteditioninPDF:http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/New%20approaches.pdfDOI: 10.1080/08037060701676326.InterneteditioninPDF:http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/New%20approaches.pdf
  46. Cortina M. & Liotti G. (2010). Attachment is about safety and protection. Intersubjectivity is about social understanding and sharing. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 27, 4: 410-441., 10.1037/a0019510DOI: 10.1037/a0019510
  47. Darwin C. (1872). The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. London: John Murray (trad. it.: L’espressione delle emozioni negli animali e nell’uomo. Torino: UTET, 1878; Torino: Boringhieri, 1982).
  48. Tomasello M., Carpenter M. & Liszkowski U. (2007). A new look at pointing. Child Development, 78, 3: 705-722., 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01025.xDOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01025.x
  49. Dawkins R. (1976). The Selfish Gene. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2nd edtion: 1989) (trad. it.: Il gene egoista. Bologna: Zanichelli, 1979; Milano: Mondadori, 1992 [2a edizione]). De Dreu C.K.W., Greer L.L., Handgraff M.J.J., Shalvi S., Van Kleef G.A., Bass M., Ten
  50. Velden F.S., Van Dijk E. & Feith S.W.W. (2010). The neuropeptide Oxytocin regulates parochial altruism in intergroup conflict in humans. Science, 328: 1408-1411., 10.1126/science.1189047.InterneteditioninPDF:http://www.rifters.com/real/articles/Science_DeDrew_et_al_Oxytocin.pdfDOI: 10.1126/science.1189047.InterneteditioninPDF:http://www.rifters.com/real/articles/Science_DeDrew_et_al_Oxytocin.pdf
  51. D’Errico F., Backwell L., Villa P., Degano I., Lucejko J.J., Bamford M.K., Higham T.F.G., Colombini M.P. & Beaumont P.B. (2012). Early evidence of San material culture represented by organic artifacts from Border Cave, South Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109, 33: 13214-13219., 10.1073/pnas.1204213109DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1204213109
  52. De Waal F. (1982). Chimpanzee Politics. New York: Harper and Row.
  53. De Waal F. (1989). Peacemaking Among Primates. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  54. De Waal F. (2009). The Age of Empathy. New York: Harmony House.
  55. De Waal F. (2013). The Bonobo and The Atheist. In Search of Humanism Among the Primates. New York: Norton.
  56. Deaner R.O., van Scahaik C.P. & Johnson V. (2006). Do some taxa have better domain-general cognition than others? Evolutionary Psychology, 4: 149-196. Internet edition in PDF: http://faculty.gvsu.edu/deanerr/Deaner%20et%20al%202006%20Do%20some%20taxa%20have%20better%20domain-general%20cognition%20than%20others.pdf.
  57. Dubreuil B. (2010). Human Evolution and the Origins of Hierarchies. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
  58. Dunbar R. (2010). How Many Friends Does a Person Need? Dunbar’s Number and other Evolutionary Quirks. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  59. Durham W.H. (1991). Genes, Culture, and Human Diversity. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
  60. Dutra L., Bianchi I., Siegel D.J. & Lyons-Ruth K. (2009). The relational context of dissociative phenomena. In: Dell P.J. & O.Neil J.A., editors, Dissociation and Dissociative Disorders. New York: Routledge, 2009, pp. 81-92.
  61. Farina G., Ceccarelli M. & Di Giannantonio M. (2005). Henri Ey’s neo-jacksonism and the psychopathology of disintegrated mind. Psychopathology, 38, 5: 285-290., 10.1159/000088447DOI: 10.1159/000088447
  62. Fernandez-Doque D. & Baird J.A. (2005). Is Their a “Social Brain”? In: Malle B.F. & Hodges S.D., editors, Other Minds. New York: Guilford, 2005, pp. 75-90.
  63. Ferrari P.F., Paukner A., Ionica C. & Suomi S.J. (2009). Reciprocal face to face communication between Rhesus Macaque mothers and their newborn infants. Current Biology, 19, 20: 1768-1772., 10.1016/j.cub.2009.08.055DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2009.08.055
  64. Fonagy P., Gergely G., Jurist E.L. & Target M. (2002). Affect Regulation, Mentalization, and the Development of the Self. New York: Other Press (trad. it.: Regolazione affettiva, mentalizzazione e sviluppo del Sé. Milano: Raffaello Cortina, 2004).
  65. Fosshage J. (2005). The explicit and implicit domains in psychoanalytic change. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 25, 4: 511-539., 10.2513/s07351690pi2504_7DOI: 10.2513/s07351690pi2504_7
  66. Freud S. (1912-13). Totem e tabù. Opere, 7: 3-164. Torino: Boringhieri, 1975.
  67. Fromm E. (1941). Appendix: Character and the social process. In: Escape from Freedom. New York: Farrar and Rinehart; Holt Reinhart and Winston. Internet edition in PDF: http://www.marxists.org/archive/fromm/works/1942/character.htm (trad. it.: Appendice: Il carattere e il processo sociale. In: Fuga dalla libertà. Milano: Edizioni di Comunità, 1963; Milano: Mondadori, 1987).
  68. Fromm E. (1947). Man for Himself. An Inquiry into the Psychology of Ethics. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston (trad. it.: Dalla parte dell’uomo: indagine sulla psicologia della morale. Roma: Astrolabio, 1971).
  69. Fromm E. (1964). The Heart of Man, Its Genius for Good and Evil. New York: Harper & Row (trad. it.: Il cuore dell’uomo: la sua disposizione al bene e al male. Roma: Carabba, 1965; Psicoanalisi dell’amore: necrofilia e biofilia nell’uomo. Roma: Newton Compton, 1971).
  70. Fromm E. (1980). Arbeiter und Angestellte am Vorabend des Dritten Reiches. Eine sozialpsychologische Untersuchung. Edited by Wolfgang Bonss. Stuttgart: DVA Sachbuch (trad. inglese: The Working Class in Weimar Germany. A Psychological and Sociological Study. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1984).
  71. Fromm E. & Maccoby M. (1970). Social Character in a Mexican Village. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  72. Gilbert P. (1989). Human Nature and Suffering. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  73. Gilbert P. (1992). Depression: The Evolution of Powerlessness. New York: Guilford.
  74. Gilbert P. (2005a). Compassion and cruelty: A biopsychosocial approach. In: Gilbert P., editor, Compassion. Conceptualization, Research and Use in Psychotherapy. London: Routledge, 2005, pp. 9-74.
  75. Gilbert P. (2005b). Social mentalities. A biosocial and evolutionary reflection on social relationships. In: Baldwin M., editor, Interpersonal Cognition. New York: Guilford, 2005, pp. 130-190.
  76. Gintis H. (2003). The hitchhiker guide to altruism: Gene-culture coevolution, and the internalization of norms. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 220, 4: 407-418., 10.1006/jtbi.2003.3104DOI: 10.1006/jtbi.2003.3104
  77. Gintis H. (2004). The genetic side of gene-culture coevolution: Internalization of norms and prosocial emotions. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 53, 1: 57-67., 10.1016/S0167-2681(03)00104-5DOI: 10.1016/S0167-2681(03)00104-5
  78. Gintis H., Bowles S., Boyd R. & Fehr E. (2003). Explaining altruistic behavior in humans. Evolution and Human Behavior, 24, 3: 153-172., 10.1016/S1090-5138(02)00157-5DOI: 10.1016/S1090-5138(02)00157-5
  79. Gintis H., Bowles S., Boyd R. & Fehr E. (2005). Moral Sentiments and Material Interests. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  80. Goodall J. (1986). The Chimpanzees of Gombe. Patterns of Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
  81. Gundersn J.G. & Sabo A.N. (1993). The phenomenological and conceptual interface between borderline personality disorder and PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 1: 19-27.
  82. Hamilton W.D. (1964). Genetical evolution of social behavior, I and II. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 7, 1: 1-16 [I,, 10.1016/0022-5193(64)90038-4]and17-52[II,DOI:10.1016/0022-5193(64)90039-6])DOI: 10.1016/0022-5193(64)90038-4]and17-52[II,DOI:10.1016/0022-5193(64)90039-6])
  83. Hammerstein P. (2003). Why is reciprocity so rare in social animals? In: Hammerstein P., editor, Genetic and Cultural Evolution of Cooperation. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2003, pp. 83-94.
  84. Hare B. & Tomasello M. (2005). Human-like social skills in dogs? Trends in Cognitive Science, 9: 439-444., 10.1016/j.tics.2005.07.003.InterneteditioninPDF:http://wwwstaff.eva.mpg.de/~tomas/pdf/Hare_Tomasello05.pdfDOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2005.07.003.InterneteditioninPDF:http://wwwstaff.eva.mpg.de/~tomas/pdf/Hare_Tomasello05.pdf
  85. Hawkes K. (2004). Human longevity: The grandmother effect. Nature, 428, 6979: 128-129.
  86. , 10.1038/428128a.InterneteditioninPDF:http://www.radicalanthropologygroup.org/old/class_text_002.pdfDOI: 10.1038/428128a.InterneteditioninPDF:http://www.radicalanthropologygroup.org/old/class_text_002.pdf
  87. Heckel E.H. (1874). Anthropogenie, oder, Entwickelungsgeschichte des Menschen: Keimesund Stammes-Geschichte. Leipzig: Engelmann (trad. it. in: Opere di Ernesto Haeckel. Torino: UTET, 1892).
  88. Henrich J., Boyd R. & Richerson P.J. (2012). The puzzle of monogamous marriage. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 367, 1589: 657-669., 10.1098/rstb.2011.0290DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2011.0290
  89. Henrich J. & Boyd R. (2001). Why people punish defectors: Conformist transmission stabilizes costly enforcement of norms in cooperative dilemmas. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 208, 1: 79-89., 10.1006/jtbi.2000.2202DOI: 10.1006/jtbi.2000.2202
  90. Henrich J., Boyd R., Bowles S., Camerer E.F., Fehr R., Gintis H., McElreath R., Alvard M., Barr A., Ensminger J., Smith Henrich N., Hill K., Gil-White F., Gurven M., Marlowe F.W., Patton J.Q. & Tracer D. (2005). “Economic Man” in cross-cultural perspectives: Behavioral experiments in 15 small-scale societies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28: 795-855., 10.1017/S0140525X05000142.InterneteditioninPDF:http://authors.library.caltech.edu/2278/1/HENbbs05.pdfDOI: 10.1017/S0140525X05000142.InterneteditioninPDF:http://authors.library.caltech.edu/2278/1/HENbbs05.pdf
  91. Henrich J. & Henrich N. (2006). Culture, evolution and the puzzle of human cooperation. Cognitive Systems Research, 7: 220-226., 10.1016/j.cogsys.2005.11.010DOI: 10.1016/j.cogsys.2005.11.010
  92. Henrich N. & Henrich J. (2007). Why Humans Cooperate. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  93. Herman J.L. (1992). Trauma and Recovery. New York: Basic Books.
  94. Hill K.R., Walker R.S., Boziecocich M., Elder J., Headland T., Hewlett B., Hurtado A.M., Marlowe F., Wiessner P. & Wood B. (2011). Co-residence patterns in hunter-gatherer societies show unique human social structure. Science, 331, 6022: 1286-1289., 10.1126/science.1199071DOI: 10.1126/science.1199071
  95. Hobson R.P. (1998). The intersubjective foundations of thought. In: Braten S., editor, Intersubjective Communication and Emotion in Ontogeny. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1998, pp. 286-293.
  96. Hobson R.P. (2004). The Cradle of Thought. Exploring the Origins of Thinking. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  97. Hopkin M. (2005). Ethiopia is top choice for cradle of Homo Sapiens. Nature, Feb. 16., 10.1038/news050214-10.Internetedition:http://www.nature.com/news/2005/050214/full/news050214-10.htmlDOI: 10.1038/news050214-10.Internetedition:http://www.nature.com/news/2005/050214/full/news050214-10.html
  98. Howell R.F. (2011). Understanding and Treating Dissociative Identity Disorders. New York: Routledge.
  99. Hrdy B.S. (2009). Mothers and Others. The Evolutionary Origins of Mutual Understanding. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.
  100. Hrdy S.B. (2013). Development + social selection in the emergence of “emotionally modern” humans. In: Meehan C.L. & Crittenden A.N., editors, Origins and Implications of the Evolution of Childhood. Santa Fe, NM: SAR Press.
  101. Kendal J., Tehrani J.J. & Oding-Smee J. (2011). Human niche construction in interdisciplinary focus. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366, 1566: 785-792., 10.1098/rstb.2010.0306DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2010.0306
  102. Kennedy K. & Norman C. (2006). Introduction to special issue. What don’t we know? Science, 309: 75., 10.1126/science.309.5731.75DOI: 10.1126/science.309.5731.75
  103. Kuhn S.L. & Stiner M.C. (2001). The antiquity of hunter-gatherers. In: Panter-Brick K., Layton R.H. & Rowly-Conway P., editors, Hunter-Gatherers. An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001, pp. 99-142.
  104. Lamarck J.-B. (1809). Philosophie zoologique ou exposition des considérations relatives à l'histoire naturelle des animaux. Paris: J.B. Bailliere, 1830 (trad. it.: Filosofia zoologica. Firenze: La Nuova Italia, 1976).
  105. Langs R. (1996). The Evolution of the Emotion-Processing Mind. New York: Karnac (trad. it.: L’evoluzione della mente emotiva. Roma: Fioriti, 1999).
  106. Lichtenberg J.D. (1989). Psychoanalysis and Motivation. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press (trad. it.: Psicoanalisi e sistemi motivazionali. Milano: Raffaello Cortina, 1995).
  107. Lichtenberg J.D., Lachmann F. & Fosshage J. (1992). Self and Motivational Systems: Towards A Theory of Psychoanalytic Technique. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press (trad. it.: Il Sé e i sistemi motivazionali. Verso una teoria della tecnica psicoanalitica. Roma: Astrolabio, 1999).
  108. Lichtenberg J.D., Lachmann F.M. & Fosshage J.I. (2002). A Spirit of Inquiry. Communication in Psychoanalysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.
  109. Lichtenberg J.D., Lachmann F.M. & Fosshage J.L. (2011). Psychoanalysis and Motivation Systems. A New Look. New York: Routlede.
  110. Liotti G. (1999). Understanding the dissociative process. The contribution of attachment theory. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 19, 5: 757-783., 10.1080/07351699909534275DOI: 10.1080/07351699909534275
  111. Liotti G. (2001). Le opere della coscienza. Psicopatologia e psicoterapia nella prospettiva cognitivo-evoluzionistica. Milano: Raffaello Cortina.
  112. Liotti G. (2004). Trauma, dissociation and disorganized attachment: Three strands of a single braid. Psychotherapy: Theory, research, practice, training, 41: 472-486., 10.1037/0033-3204.41.4.472DOI: 10.1037/0033-3204.41.4.472
  113. Liotti G. (2006). A model of dissociation based on attachment theory and research. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 7: 55-73., 10.1300/J229v07n04_04DOI: 10.1300/J229v07n04_04
  114. Liotti G. (2011). Attachment disorganization and the controlling strategies: An illustration of the contributions of attachment theory to developmental psychopathology and to psychotherapy integration. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 21: 232-252., 10.1037/a0025422DOI: 10.1037/a0025422
  115. Liotti G. (2015). Overcoming powerlessness in the clinical exchange with traumatized patients. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 35, 1, in press.
  116. Lumsden C.J. & Wilson E.O. (1981). Genes, Mind and Culture. The Coevolutionary Process. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  117. Lyons-Ruth K. (2003). Dissociation and the parent-infant dialogue. A Longitudinal perspective from attachment. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 51, 3: 883-911., 10.1177/00030651030510031501DOI: 10.1177/00030651030510031501
  118. Lyons-Ruth K. & Jacobvitz D. (1999). Attachment disorganization: Unresolved loss, relational violence and lapses in behavioral and attention strategies. In: Cassidy & Shaver, 1999, pp. 520-554.
  119. Lyons-Ruth K., Yellin C., Melnick S. & Atwood G. (2005). Expanding the concept of unresolved mental states: Hostile/Helpless states of mind on the Adult Attachment Interview are associated with disrupted mother-infant communication and infant disorganization. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 1: 1-23., 10.1017/S0954579405050017DOI: 10.1017/S0954579405050017
  120. Maccoby M. (1981). The Leader. New York: Simon and Schuster.
  121. Maccoby M. (1988). Why Work. Leading the New Generation. New York: Simon and Schuster.
  122. Maccoby M. (2003). The Productive Narcissist. The Promise and Peril of Visionary Leadership. New York: Broadway Books.
  123. MacLean P.D. (1985). The Triune Brain in Development. New York: Plenum (trad. it.: Evoluzione del cervello e comportamento umano: studi sul cervello trino. Con un saggio introduttivo di Luciano Gallino. Torino: Einaudi, 1984).
  124. Main M. (1991). Metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive monitoring and singular (coherent) vs. multiple (incoherent) model of attachment. In: Parkes C.M., Stevenson-Hinde J. & Marris P., editors, Attachment Across the Life Cycle. London: Routledge, 1991, pp. 127-129.
  125. Main M. & Solomon J. (1986). The discovery of a new insecure disorganized/disoriented pattern. In: Brazelton T.B. & Yoman M., editors, Affective Development in Infancy. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1986, pp. 95-124.
  126. Main M. & Cassidy J. (1988). Categories of response to reunion with the parent at age 6: Predictable from infant attachment classifications and stable over a 1-month period. Developmental Psychology, 24, 3: 415-428., 10.1037/0012-1649.24.3.415DOI: 10.1037/0012-1649.24.3.415
  127. Main M. & Hesse E. (1990). Parents’ unresolved traumatic experiences are related to infant disorganized attachment status. In: Greenberg M.T., Cicchetti D. & Commings E.M., editors, Attachment in the Preschool Years: Theory, Research, and Intervention. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1990, pp. 161-182.
  128. McElreath R. & Boyd R. (2007). Mathematical Models of Social Cognition. A Guide for the Perplexed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  129. Meares R. (2012). A Dissociative Models of Borderline Personality Disorders. New York: Norton.
  130. Meltzoff A. & Moore M. (1977). Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates. Science, 198, 4312: 75-78., 10.1126/science.198.4312.75.InterneteditioninPDF:http://ilabs.washington.edu/meltzoff/pdf/77Meltzoff_Moore_Science.pdDOI: 10.1126/science.198.4312.75.InterneteditioninPDF:http://ilabs.washington.edu/meltzoff/pdf/77Meltzoff_Moore_Science.pd
  131. Mithen S. (2012). The social conquest of earth: An exchange. The New York Review of Books, August 16.
  132. Muller R., Sicoli L.A. Kathryn E. & Lemieux K.E. (2000). Relationship between attachment style and posttraumatic stress symptomatology among adults who report the experience of childhood abuse. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 13, 2: 321-332., 10.1023/A:1007752719557DOI: 10.1023/A:1007752719557
  133. Nowak M.A. & Highfield R. (2011). Super Cooperators. Altruism, Evolution, and Why We Need Others to Succeed. New York: Free Press.
  134. O’Connor M. & Elklit A. (2008). Attachment styles, traumatic events, and PTSD: a crosssectional investigation of adult attachment and trauma. Attachment & Human Development, 10, 1: 59-71., 10.1080/14616730701868597DOI: 10.1080/14616730701868597
  135. Ogawa J.R., Sroufe J., Weinfield N.S., Carlson E. & Egeland B. (1997). Development of the fragmented self. Longitudinal study of dissociative symptomatolgy in a nonclinical sample. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 4: 855-879., 10.1017/S0954579497001478DOI: 10.1017/S0954579497001478
  136. Panksepp J. (1998). Affective Neuroscience. New York: Oxford University Press.
  137. Panksepp J. & Biven L. (2012). The Archaeology of Mind. Neuroevolutionary Origins of Human Emotions. New York: Norton.
  138. Pertegato E. Gatti & Pertegato G. Orghe, editors (2013). From Psychoanalysis to Group Analysis. The Pioneering Work of Trigant Burrow. Forewords by Malcolm Pines, Alfreda Sill Galt and Lloyd Gilden. London: Karnac (rielaborazione e ampliamento della II ediz. di: Trigant Burrow, Dalla psicoanalisi alla fondazione della gruppoanalisi. Patologia della “normalità”, conflitto individuale e sociale. Vimodrone [MI]: IPOC, 2010; I ediz.: 2009).
  139. Porges S. (2011). The Polyvagal Theory: Neurophysiological Foundations of Emotions, Attachment, Communication, and Self-regulation. New York: Norton.
  140. Powell A., Shennan E. & Thomas S. (2009). Late Pleistocene demography and the appearance of modern human behavior. Science, 324, 5932: 1298-1301., 10.1126/science.1170165DOI: 10.1126/science.1170165
  141. Price J.S. (1967). Hypothesis: The dominance hierarchy and the evolution of mental illness. Lancet, 290, 75092: 243-246., 10.1016/S0140-6736(67)92306-9DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(67)92306-9
  142. Rakoczy H. & Schmidt M.F.H. (2013). The early ontogeny of social norms. Child Development Perspectives, 7, 1: 17-21., 10.1111/cdep.12010DOI: 10.1111/cdep.12010
  143. Renn P. (2012). The Silent Past and the Invisible Present. Memory, Trauma and Representation in Psychotherapy. New York: Routledge.
  144. Richerson P.J. & Boyd R. (2005). Not by Genes Alone. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  145. Schore A.L. (2003). Affect Dysregulation and the Origins of the Self. New York: Norton (trad. it.: La regolazione degli affetti e la riparazione del Sé. Roma: Astrolabio, 2008).
  146. Schore A.L. (2009). Attachment trauma and the developing right brain: Origins of pathological dissociation. In: Dell P.F. & O’Neil J.A., editors, Dissociation and the Dissociative Disorders: DSM-V and Beyond. New York: Rutledge, 2009, pp. 259-276.
  147. Sear R. & Mace R. (2008). How keeps children alive? A review of the effects on kin on child survival. Evolution and Human Behavior, 29, 1: 1-28., 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2007.10.001DOI: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2007.10.001
  148. Sherratt T.N. & Roberts G. (2012). When paths to cooperation converge. Science, 337, 6100: 1304-1306., 10.1126/science.1226328DOI: 10.1126/science.1226328
  149. Slavin M.O. & Kreigman D. (1992). The Adaptive Desigh of the Human Psyche. Psychoanalysis. Evolutionary Biology and the Therapeutic Process. New York: Guilford.
  150. Sober E. & Wilson D.S. (1998). Unto Others: The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  151. Solms M. & Panksepp J. (2012). The “Id” knows more than the “Ego” admits: Neuropsychoanalytic and primal consciousness perspectives on the interface between affective and cognitive neuroscience. Brain Sciences, 2, 4: 147-175., 10.3390/brainsci2020147DOI: 10.3390/brainsci2020147
  152. Solomon J. & George C. (2011). Disorganization of maternal caregiving across two generations: The origins of caregiving helplessness In: Soloman J. & Gorge C., editors, Disorganized Attachment and Caregiving. New York: Guilford, 2011, pp. 25-51.
  153. Sroufe L.A., Egeland B., Carlson E. & Collins W.A. (2005). The Development of the Person. The Minnesota Study of Risk and Adaptation from Birth to Adulthood. New York: Guilford.
  154. Sulloway F.J. (1979). Freud, Biologist of the Mind. Beyond the Psychoanalytic Legend. New York: Basic Books (trad. it.: Freud biologo della psiche. Al di là della leggenda psicoanalitica. Milano: Feltrinelli, 1982).
  155. Suttie I.D. (1935). The Origins of Love and Hate. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner (New York: Julian, 1952; London: Pelican, 1961; London: Free Association Books, 1988) (trad. it.: Le origini dell’amore e dell’odio. Torino: Centro Scientifico Editore, 2007; trad. it. Del cap. 1: Biologia dell’amore e dell’interesse. Psicoterapia e Scienze Umane, 1993, XXVII, 3: 111-123).
  156. Szyf M. & Bick J. (2013). DNA Methylation: A Mechanism for Embedding Early Life Experiences in the Genome. Child Development, 84, 1: 49-57., 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01793.xDOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01793.x
  157. Tan J. & Hare B. (2013). Bonobos share with strangers. PLoS One, 8, 1., 10.1371/journal.pone.0051922.Internet:http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0051922DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051922.Internet:http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0051922
  158. Tattersall I. & Schwartz J.H. (2000). Extinct Humans. New York: Westview Press.
  159. Thompson J.L. & Nelson A.J. (2011). Middle childhood and modern human origins. Human Nature, 22, 3: 249-280., 10.1007/s12110-011-9119-3DOI: 10.1007/s12110-011-9119-3
  160. Tomasello M. (1999). The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  161. Tomasello M. (2007). Cooperation and communication in the 2nd year of life. Child Development Perspectives, 1, 1: 8-12., 10.1111/j.1750-8606.2007.00003.xDOI: 10.1111/j.1750-8606.2007.00003.x
  162. Tomasello M. (2008). Origins of Human Communication. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  163. Tomasello M. (2009). Why We Cooperate Cambridge, Mass: Boston Review Book.
  164. Tomasello M., Carpenter M., Call J., Behne T. & Henrike M. (2005). Understanding and sharing intentions: The origins of cultural cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 5: 675-735., 10.1017/S0140525X05000129DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X05000129
  165. Trevarthen C. (1980). The foundations of intersubjectivity: The social foundations of language and thought. In: Olsen D.R., editor, The Social Foundations of Language and Thought. New York: Norton, 1980, pp. 316-342.
  166. Trivers R.L. (1971). The evolution of reciprocal altruism. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 46, 1: 35-37., 10.1086/406755DOI: 10.1086/406755
  167. Trivers R.L. (1974). Parent-offspring conflict. American Zoologist, 14, 1: 249-264. Internet edition in PDF: http://www.nbb.cornell.edu/wkoenig/wicker/NB4340/Trivers%201974.pdf.
  168. Tronick E. (2007). The Neurobehavioral and Socio-Emotional Development of Infants and Children. New York: Norton (in italiano, si veda la raccolta di saggi dal titolo Regolazione emotiva: nello sviluppo e nel processo terapeutico. Milano: Raffaello Cortina, 2008).
  169. Tronick E., Als H., Adamson L., Wise E. & Brazelton T.B. (1978). The infant’s response to entrapment between contradictory messages in face-to-face interactions. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 17: 1-13., 10.1207/s15327078in0501_3DOI: 10.1207/s15327078in0501_3
  170. Van der Hart O., Nijenhuis E.R.S. & Steele K. (2006). The haunted self: structural dissociation and the treatment of chronic traumatization. New York: Norton (trad. it.: Fantasmi del Sé. Trauma e trattamento della dissociazione strutturale. Milano: Raffaello Cortina, 2011).
  171. Watner U.G., Grossmann K., Gremmer-Bombik E. & Sues G. (1994). Attachment patterns a age six in southern Germany. Predictability from infancy and implications for preschool behaviors. Child Development, 71: 1014-1027.
  172. Weissner P. (1982). Risk, reciprocity and social influences on !Kung San economics. In: Lee R.B. & Leacock E., editors, Politics and History in Band Societies. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1982, pp. 61-83. Internet edition in PDF: http://www.geog.umn.edu/faculty/squires/courses/BSE3001/Wiessner%201982.pdf.
  173. Wiener E. & Slifka A., editors (1998). Interethnic Coexistence. New York: Continuum Publishing Company.
  174. Williams E. (1966). Adaptation and Natural Selection. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  175. Wilson D.S. (2002). Darwin’s Cathedral. Evolution, Religion, and the Nature of Society. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  176. Wilson D.S. & Wilson E.O. (2007). Rethinking the theoretical foundations of sociobiology Quarterly Review of Biology, 82, 4: 327-328., 10.1086/522809DOI: 10.1086/522809
  177. Wilson E.O. (2012). The Social Conquest of Earth. New York: Liveright Publishing Company.
  178. Wrangham R. (2009). Catching Fire. How Cooking Made Us Human. New York: Basic Books (trad. it.: L’intelligenza del fuoco: l’invenzione della cottura e l’evoluzione dell’uomo. Torino: Bollati Boringhieri, 2011).

Mauricio Cortina, Giovanni Liotti, An evolutionary perspective on motivation: Implications for clinical dialogue. in "PSICOTERAPIA E SCIENZE UMANE" 1/2014, pp. 23-72, DOI:10.3280/PU2014-001003

   

FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content