The author summarizes the development of the concept of gender medicine, which is meant as a discipline aimed at optimizing medical research and patient care on the basis of the gender. The author then deals with the tools to undertake a specific education in gender medicine within the medical school and discusses the possibility to introduce this topic as an elective course. On the basis of the experience collected in Pisa University, statistical data are presented showing gender differences in medical school attendance and examination performance. Female students prevail in the number of candidates for admission and in the number of attending students. They get slightly better results in the clinical courses, which require direct interaction with patients. Therefore the author suggests that gender differences also affect medical education and its results. It is speculated that these differences may represent an opportunity to be exploited, rather than a defect to be corrected.
Keywords: Medicine, gender, education, university, clinics, therapy